Research Paper: Recruiting Methods on Cultural Diversity

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[. . .] Language can be a key dividing factor in the workforce. Cultural differences in language can also result in cultural divisions and conflict once a diverse workforce is achieved. Language and cultural barriers can be the most difficult issue to resolve in the diverse workforce (Cox, 1993).

These issues are key factors in the ability to recruit a diverse workforce in the first place. Rynes, Bretz, & Gerhart, (1991) found that critical job choice and search decisions were made according to several criteria. It was found that job seekers interpreted many recruitment experiences and took them into consideration in their decisions. Some of these recruitment experiences and factors included recruiter competence, composition of interview panels, and recruitment delays. Job seekers interpreted delays and other characteristics to be symbolic of organizational characteristics as a whole. The recruitment process was found to have a key impact on the decisions of job seekers. It seems that job seekers base their impression and later future hiring decisions on their interpretation of factors in the interview process. This research would suggest that companies need to work on putting out a positive image regarding diversity issues if they wish to attract a diverse workforce.

The work of Rynes, Bretz, & Gerhart, (1991) suggests that companies cannot simply put out generic information and expect to develop a diverse workforce. They must play an active role and take an active stance if they wish to attract the diverse workforce that they desire. They must pay the same attention to the image that they present as the job candidates that they interview. They must approach this as a brand management and marketing problem rather than limiting it to a human resource activity which involves simply filling a position within the organization.

One strategy for managing company image in terms of recruitment is called the ELM theory. This theory proposes that individuals process communications designed to persuade along a continuum that refer to its end points of high and low elaboration (Larsen & James, 2001). Elaboration is described as the extent to which a person thinks about the issues contained in the communication. The person must be motivated to evaluate the content of the message, otherwise it will be disregarded and not even processed. This is a principle that marketers have known for years. In order to be effective, the message must grab the attention of the consumer. The first step is grabbing the attention of the recipient. The next step involves providing a compelling message that will encourage them to think about the subject of the message more extensively. Larsen & James indicate that the same principle must be used by recruiters to attract workforce diversity.

Larsen & James found that job applicants will be more likely to engage in thinking about the organization when they perceive that their personal preferences are in alignment with job characteristics and organizational attitudes. Recruiters must find a way to engage job applicants in order to gain their attention. These researchers also found that job applicants with a higher level of job knowledge prior to the interview are more likely to have high levels of elaboration. Those with low levels of job knowledge tend to have a lower level of elaboration. Those with higher levels of knowledge and therefore higher levels of elaboration are more likely to be affected by peripheral clues such as recruiter behaviors and characteristics. This research supports the importance of recruiter impressions on the ability to attract a diverse workforce. Recruiters must play an active role in the development of their image so that it is in alignment with the characteristics of the organization and the desired expectations of the job seeker.

Many companies have become aware that in order to improve diversity within the organization they need to develop recruitment initiatives that attract minority job applicants. The message sent by many of these initiatives, including that by Larson and James, is that the message must maintain that the organization has a supportive culture towards diversity issues. However, this tactic can backfire if minority job applicants find that diversity climates in the workplace are actually poor. They may feel that the hiring tactics used by human resources is misleading. This can lead to increased turnover and the need to attract more minority hires. High minority turnover can have a negative impact on the ability to attract minorities in the future (McKay & Avery, 2005). This research demonstrates that there is more to diversity issues than attracting minority workers. Once they are there, the company must make sure that they keep them. They must continue to manage their image regarding treatment of minorities if they are to maintain confidence within the minority community.

One of the most important factors that a company can recognize about minorities is that in minority communities word travels fast and can have an impact on company image within the organization. Companies that attract workers but do not keep them will soon find themselves in a position of being unable to attract minority workers even if they develop an effective minority recruitment program. This is the point that McKay and Avery made in their study.

Thus far in the research, we have identified the importance of recruitment on the ability to attract minority groups to the organization. It was found that image plays an important role in the recruitment process and the ability to attract job seekers and turn them into employees. The recruitment process goes beyond the initial contact and must carry through the entire recruitment process. However, research also suggests that companies must take measures to maintain their diverse workforce or they could develop a bad reputation in the minority communities. Diversity management plays an important role in the ability to a build the most effective, diverse workforce possible.

Cultural competence and emotional intelligence were found to play a significant role in the effective management of diversity within the workforce. One must be able to not only hear, but to understand and embrace an opinion different from their own in order to effectively manage diversity within the workforce (Chrobot-Mason & Leslie, 2003). Policies are not enough and education is one of the most important tools that managers can use in promoting harmony within the diverse workforce. Previously, the importance of avoiding conflict surrounding diversity issues was found to play a key role in whether management of diversity issues promoted a positive or negative atmosphere within the organization.

Phinney & Alipuria (1996) found that cultural attitudes began in high school and college. This study contradicts earlier studies that claim that minority students in an interracial high school how lower self-esteem and psychological well being. The study found that study design played a role in many of these findings. The same findings also suggest that the same principles may apply to the workforce. Minorities often do not suffer from lower self-esteem in the workforce, particularly if the environment promotes cultural diversity. Education about those from other cultures, as well as exposure to them plays a key role in promoting a positive atmosphere regarding diversity within the workforce.

Singh (2010) also examined the effects of cross cultural experiences on knowledge and understanding of various minority groups. It was found that a one-on-one exchange of cultural ideas between individual was more effective in promoting a positive cross cultural experience than a breath of experiences with a single ethnic group. This research suggests that group cultural diversity training within an organization may be less effective than providing experiences that promote one-on-one contact between members of various cultures.


The purpose of this research was to explore the effects of cultural diversity on organizational recruitment. It was found that recruitment techniques and job seeker experiences with the recruiter play an important role in attracting minority employees. The job seeker must feel that the organization has a positive attitude and culture that promotes positive experiences regarding cultural issues. It was also found that if the company does not live up to expectations once the employee is hired that it can lead to high turnover rates. High turnover rates due to cultural conflict can have a negative impact on the ability to attract other minority workers in the future.

The key finding of the research is that recruitment goes beyond the hiring process. Recruitment of a diverse workforce means managing diversity issues within the organization and promoting a culture that promotes innovation and cooperation. One-on-one experiences play a key role in the development of positive attitudes towards diversity issues within the organization. Recruitment and continual maintenance of cultural issues work together to set the tone within the organization. First impressions are important, but they are not the end of the recruitment process. Recruitment extends into human resource activities that go beyond the hiring process. Maintenance of a positive experience regarding workforce diversity is one of the most important factors in promoting the continued positive experiences within the workforce, which in turn leads to greater diversity and innovation within… [END OF PREVIEW]

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APA Format

Recruiting Methods on Cultural Diversity.  (2011, November 12).  Retrieved May 23, 2019, from

MLA Format

"Recruiting Methods on Cultural Diversity."  12 November 2011.  Web.  23 May 2019. <>.

Chicago Format

"Recruiting Methods on Cultural Diversity."  November 12, 2011.  Accessed May 23, 2019.