Term Paper: Remote Sensing Can Be Utilized

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[. . .] Radiometric sensitivity: This is the sensors ability to differentiate the reflectance or the remittance of the spectral radiation from various predetermined targets. This however depend s on the various quantum levels that exists within a certain spectral band.

Problems with remotely sensed information

The major problem with remotely sensed information is that the path that exists between the object under study and the sensor is never clear.Therefore, the process of trying to derive quantitative information becomes almost impossible since in this case the underwater habitats are completely submerged and covered with various objects and particles. There also exists variable levels of reflectance at various water bottom depths (Ahmad,1994).In order to take care of this anomaly, an algorithm for water column correction has been derived and is therefore employed in coming up with clearer images.The water column correction algorithm is however not adopted for areas with shallow water depths.

The application of GIS and remote sensing in the management of coral reef along the Caribbean

1. SeaWiFS's Global Shallow Bathymetry

The process of characterization of the depth of water in the oceans is an initial step towards improving the method of identifying and characterizing coral reefs.Scientists from NOAA has come up with a revolutionary new method that is an improvement of the earlier bathymetry algorithms. This method was originally used in the 4-Metre IKONOS imagery and can be utilized in the analysis of data from a variety of other sensors (Stumpf et al. 2003b).The algorithm is applied in the one kilometer bathymetry map obtained in the SeaWiFS data. Each pixel's value in the maximum resolution SeaWiFS depth classification technique is taken out of the distances that are worked out from different SeaWiFS flights in order for the cloud pixels to be eliminated. The very best results are obtained after the elimination of the various effects cause d by the following elements: chlorophyll and sediments. Median measurements are then used after being subjected to cloud pixel removal in order to come up with an appropriate representation on the map.

The introduction of the latest technology in the satellite design has resulted in the existence of powerful satellites such as IRS -- 1C, P4, P6 and, 1D.Thes satellites possess increased levels of spatial resolution of varying degrees of tolerances. For example The PAN has a . spatial resolution of 5.8m,LISS IV has spatial resolution of 5.8 m while WiFS and AWiFS have spatial resolution of 188m and 56 meters respectively. These satellites also have extended ranges and increased repetivity of up to 4 days of data.

The data obtained from PAN when used in conjunction with the data obtained from LISS-III and IV generates information of very high special detail regarding ecological activities. The information derived from the PAN and LISS three and LISS four give important information regarding coral reef zonation.These information are particularly accurate for atolls, coral pinnacles and patch coral reefs.

Problems with remotely sensed information

The major problem with remotely sensed information is that the path that exists between the object under study and the sensor is never clear.Therefore, the process of trying to derive quantitative information becomes almost impossible since in this case the underwater habitats are completely submerged and covered with various objects and particles. There also exists variable levels of reflectance at various water bottom depths (Ahmad,1994).

In order to take care of this anomaly, an algorithm for water column correction has been derived and is therefore employed in coming up with clearer images.The water column correction algorithm is however not adopted for areas with shallow water depths.

Fig1.A flow chart showing the processes involved in the study of ecosystem changes using satellite data

(Hussin et. al., 1999)

Conclusion

The use of GIS mapping in the management of coral reef is indeed a revolutionary step towards solving the problem associated with the destruction of coastal ecosystem.However, the use of Landsat7 ETM+ dataset in the classification of the reefs has some limitations. The limitations are due to the main assumptions that are part of the process used and also in the sensor resolution. Other sources of errors in this method include the physical, structural and spectral attributes of the object under study. It however becomes possible to derive a rough level of geomorphologic and ecological classification of the coral reefs off the shores of the Caribbeans.The use of and application of water column correction method enables the improvement of the lower map. This is achieved through the incorporation of layers of texture in the classification and by the contextual editing of the map after classification. The utilization of the true color composite in tandem with HIS-optimized color composite together with the integrated depth map results in an accurate delineation of the different geomorphologolical aspects of the coral reef landscape. In summary, it is of paramount importance to Geomorphologic features of a coral reef system. Finally, it is important to merge both methods of classification into a single level ordered classification schema so as to enable later update and improvement of the map information with the most up-to-date information. A more improved assessment technique must be devised in the future to Bibliography

Curtis, Gregory (2006). The Cave Painters: Probing the Mysteries of the World's First

Artists. NY, USA: Knops

Bastin. J. (1988). Measuring areas of coral reefs using satellite imagery,

Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Coastal Zone, Gold Coast

Queensland. p vii.1.1?vii.1.9.

Bryant D, Burke L, McManus J & Spalding M, (1998). Reefs at risk - a map-based indicator of Threats to the world's coral reefs. (World Resources Institute)

Chauvaud S, Bouchon C & Maniere R (1998). Remote sensing techniques adapted to high resolution mapping of tropical coastal marine ecosystems (coral reefs, sea grass beds and mangrove)

Mumby PJ & Harborne AR (1999). Development of a systematic classification scheme of marine habitats to facilitate regional management and mapping of Caribbean coral reefs. Biological Conservation

Andrefouet S, Muller-Karger F, Hochberg E, Hu C. & Carder K (2001) Change detection in shallow coral reef environments using Landsat 7 ETM+ data

Kutser T, Skirving W, Parslow J, Clementson L, Done T, Wakeford M & Miller I (2001) Spectral discrimination of coral reef bottom types, Proceedings of IGARSS 2001: 'Scanning the present and resolving the future' (IEEE: Sydney, Australia), CD-ROM

Holden H,( 2002). Characterisation of optical water quality in Bunaken National Marine Park, Northern Sulawesi

Tanis FJ & Malinas NP ( 2002). Shallow Water Extraction Algorithm for Bathymetry and Bottom Features.

Hochberg EJ & Atkinson MJ, (2003). Capabilities of remote sensors to classify coral, algae, and sand as pure and mixed spectra. Remote Sensing of Environment,

Paredes JM & Spero RE, (1983). Water depth mapping from passive remote sensing data under a generalized ratio assumption. Applied Optics, 22(8): 1134-1135

Edwards A, (1999). Applications of Satellite and Airborne Image Data to Coastal Management.(Coastal region and small island papers 4,… [END OF PREVIEW]

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