Research Proposal: Removing Smoking in the Workplace

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[. . .] S. deaths in 1990 and resulted in 417,000 deaths of U.S. residents. The report noted that this number was far greater than the total number of deaths due to automobile and other accidents, AIDS, suicide, and homicide. The total costs to society were $68 billion or $2.59 per pack of cigarettes (Dardis, 1995). "

The study concluded that there is a pervasive acceptance of smoking. It was based on the fact that people continue to smoke even though the prices have increased, acceptance in the workplace has been reduced and general social acceptance seems to be on the downward spiral. The smokers who smoke still feel it is within their right to do so, and would prefer to do so anywhere, at anytime including at work in the workplace.

These literature studies have looked at many aspects of smoking including the acceptance of it as a habit, the continued use of smoking and the effects it has on one's health. While the studies provide a backdrop for the proposed study of this paper, they do not compete with the proposal because they do not focus on the productivity of workers in the workplace as related to whether or not they are allowed to smoke while they work.

There are many workplace restrictions on smoking and they have increased steadily as time marches on. The following chart provides an idea of the growth the banning of workplace smoking has experienced.

The concern of non-smokers when it came to smokers being allowed to smoke in the workplace was the risk it placed on their own lives. Medical science now knows that smoking has a negative impact on the lifespan of those who do it as well as those who are exposed to it through secondhand means. The following chart provides an idea of smoking affects life expectancies. This is a measurable negative impact on workers and their peers when smoking is allowed at the workplace.

In addition to the above charts there are other warnings about smoking in the workplace. While they do not deal with the productivity from an attitude or withdrawal aspect they do touch on the ways productivity can be reduced because of the negative health impact that smoking at work provides. They include:

Synergistic Health Effects of Cigarette Smoking and Chemical Exposures. When workers smoke and are exposed to other toxic substances on the job, they can experience far greater health damage than what might be expected from simply adding together the damage each contributing factor is capable of causing.

Cigarette Smoking Can Add to Health Damage Caused By Exposure to Toxic Agents. Scientists have concluded that chronic respiratory diseases develop when the lungs repeatedly experience the damaging effects of cigarette smoking, recurrent respiratory infections beginning in childhood, or long-term occupational and environmental exposures. Smoking adds to the harmful health effects which result from exposure to toxic chemicals in the workplace.

Chemicals in Cigarette Smoke are Also Found in the Workplace. Tobacco smoke contains hundreds of toxic substances, many of which are also found in the workplace. The following is a partial list of chemicals found in cigarette smoke that are commonly present in the workplace and can add to a worker's total exposure.

Workers Who Smoke Have More Accidents. Smokers have twice the accident rate of nonsmokers on the job. Suggestions about the reasons for this include loss of attention, the fact that a person's hands may be busy with the activity of smoking, irritation of the eyes and coughing. Higher carbon monoxide levels caused by smoking may lower alertness and reflex speed. Smoking can also contribute to fire and explosions in occupational settings where flammable and explosive chemicals are used (Why Does Smoking Cause Harmful Health Effects In The Workplace? ("



Robert A. Logan; Daniel R. Longo, Rethinking Anti-Smoking Media Campaigns: Two Generations of Research and Issues for the Next. Vol. 25, Journal of Health Care Finance, 06-01-1999, pp 77-90.

Gonz-z; M.L. Ballester Calabuig., Tuberculosis Related to Labor Activity in an Area of Valencia, Spain. Vol. 62 no, Journal of Environmental Health, 07-01-1999.

Greene, Robert E.; Williams, Phillip L., Indoor air quality investigation protocols.. Vol. 59, Journal of Environmental Health, 10-01-1996, pp 6(9).

Dardis, Rachel; Keane, Thomas, Risk-benefit analysis of cigarette smoking: public policy implications.. Vol. 29, Journal of Consumer Affairs, 12-01-1995, pp 351(17).

Darmody, Donna Lynn-Ehrich, Beverly, Snuffing it out: A smokeless tobacco intervention with athletes at a small private college.. Vol. 43, Journal of American College Health, 07-01-1994, pp 27.

Why Does Smoking Cause Harmful Health Effects In The Workplace? [END OF PREVIEW]

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Cite This Research Proposal:

APA Format

Removing Smoking in the Workplace.  (2003, March 10).  Retrieved June 16, 2019, from

MLA Format

"Removing Smoking in the Workplace."  10 March 2003.  Web.  16 June 2019. <>.

Chicago Format

"Removing Smoking in the Workplace."  March 10, 2003.  Accessed June 16, 2019.