Reparations Are Americans of African Term Paper

Pages: 8 (2317 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: ≈ 25  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Black Studies

1%). In other large cities such as Detroit, New York and Cleveland, roughly the same numbers were recorded. It has also been noted, (Levin, Itzkoff), that in Harlem between 1905 and 1925, only 3% of all families were headed by a woman under 30 and 85% of black children lived in two-parent families.

In 1997 illegitimacy among blacks was around 70%. In addition only 41% of black males 15 years and older were married, and only 36% of black children lived in two-parent families. These are among indicators of family instability and its associated socioeconomic factors such as high crime, welfare dependency and poor educational achievement is claimed to be the legacy and vestiges of slavery, for which black Americans are due reparations. But if these very real problems faced by blacks today are due to the past sins of slavery why was it not prevalent in the years following the end of slavery when blacks arguably had much less advantages and most started off with little more then the clothes on their back? If like baldness, the malady of slavery skips a generation, (or several in this case) why have not socialists studied this phenomenon? Clearly, the socio-pathologies that affect the black community today are generations removed from the practices and outcomes of slavery a century and a half ago.Buy full Download Microsoft Word File paper
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Supporters of reparations cite economists who calculate the value of that debt, adjusted for inflation, at $1.4 trillion -- and up. Moreover, that does not include the added trillions lost to black Americans after Emancipation the income they were denied because of legal segregation and discrimination. Slaves worked killingly long, hard hours for hundreds of years without so much as a fathering going into their pockets for their labors. In the abstract the case for paying reparations are profound and not without some merit. But with equal merit are the claims by those who argue against reparations. No white American alive today has ever owned a slave, and the vast majority of Americans are descended from non-slave owners. No black American alive today is a survivor of slavery, or the child, or even, with rare exceptions, the grandchild, of a survivor of slavery. (Horowitz) The nearly two and a half centuries during which human beings were treated as chattel are a sordid stain on our history. However, this fact cannot be said without also noting that it was Europeans who ended slavery, usually by force, throughout most of the world during the 1700s and 1800s. Even today where slavery is still practiced it is outside of the European and American realm of influence, such as in the Sudan. No living American is responsible for the stain of slavery from neither our past nor the blot of slavery currently still practiced in remote lands. In addition, none deserves to be punished for it.

Ultimately, some injustices cannot be repaired. Some debts cannot ever be paid. It would be hard to believe that the proponents of reparations do not mean to suggest that measly dollars, or in this case trillions of them, can retroactively purify the evil committed by those who bought and used Africans like cattle?

Works Cited

Brian Kuzma Black Month Should Be History 2/14/2002 Accessed April 19, 2003

Conyers John Accessed April 19, 2003

Damu Jean web site article

Engerman Stanley Inikori Joseph, The Atlantic Slave Trade: Effects on Economies, Societies, and Peoples in Africa, the Americas, and Europe, Duke University Press, 1992

Horowitz David, 2001 Uncivil Wars: The Controversy Over Reparations For Slavery; Encounter Books

Horowitz David Ten Reasons Why Reparations for Blacks is a Bad Idea for Blacks - and Racist Too | January 3, 2001

Isaacs Steve, web site Accessed April 19, 2003

Kong Deborah, AP Minority Issues Writer, Slavery reparations sparks debate among black scholars, activists., AP Worldstream, 05-16-2002.

Jackson Jessie Rainbow Colalition Web Stie Accessed April 19, 2003

Levin Michael Itzkoff Seymour Why Race Matters: Race Differences and What They Mean, Praeger Publishers, 1997

Lewin Tamar Calls for Slavery Restitution Getting Louder June 4, 2001 New York Times Accessed April 19, 2003

Mfume Kweisi press release July 13, 2001 Accessed April 19, 2003 Accessed April 19, 2003

NAACP Poll Accessed April 19, 2003

Thomas Legislative Information on the Internet, Library of Congress Web Site 2003

Wharton Martha L. Ph.D "Promises Unfulfilled: 40 Acres And A Mule, And Other Tales of Reparations" Accessed 2003 therefore


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Other nations that had such record of violations continued such action; Expert X states that nations that have been chronic violators nearly always continue such acts; etc. [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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APA Style

Reparations Are Americans of African.  (2003, April 20).  Retrieved June 3, 2020, from

MLA Format

"Reparations Are Americans of African."  20 April 2003.  Web.  3 June 2020. <>.

Chicago Style

"Reparations Are Americans of African."  April 20, 2003.  Accessed June 3, 2020.