Rhetoric in Modern Day Proceedings Term Paper

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Such references are estimated to be more intensive to the extent of five times in the contemporary discourses ever since Woodrow Wilson in comparison to the speeches of aristocratic presidents. The presidential discourses gradually has become more and more interactive; it aims at establishment of more intimate relationship, calling for more confidence on the orator and becoming more and more subjective. However, at times of catastrophe it is suggested that the leaders in America should have been more and more open. (Lim, Five Trends in Presidential Rhetoric)

Emphasis has been made more profoundly in the past years on public participations and initiations. However, there is a general feeling that such speeches are only propagandas and creation of the group actually who do not acknowledge the right of the people for self-governance the basic underlying vision of the founders of democracy. However, both the antagonists and protagonists acknowledge the influence of the systems of initiative and referendum in our day-to-day affairs. It has been visualized that the system of referendum and initiative has become a prominent strategy in cotemporary era for guiding the public policy both at state and federal level. It has been seen that in the last couple of years the peoples mandate has been respected in formulation of policies in the sphere of educational reforms, term limitations, tax reforms, campaign finance reforms, animal protection, drug policy, environmental protections etc. (Waters, The Battle over Citizen Lawmaking: A Collection of Essays)Buy full Download Microsoft Word File paper
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Term Paper on Rhetoric in Modern Day Proceedings, Assignment

The discourses of President Kennedy on the Vietnamese crisis illustrate the striking balance of idealism and pragmatism that the Presidents of the States resort to that emphasizes application of the generalization of problem solving methods with the realistic approaches indicating the effectiveness and the operation ability of the policies. The Vietnam Policy of Kennedy was made acceptable with inclusions of the idealistic principles posing himself as an idealistic politician. This also made him capable of effectively avoiding the condemnations and in creating an idea of championing the realism. John F. Kennedy, a Congressman of Massachusetts was deputed to Middle and Far East in 1951 on an investigative mission. He extended his stand with the policies of the west in protection of the liberty in the regions. He advocated that had the West not reacted to in these principles the Chinese Communists would have taken over these areas. (Bostdorff; Goldzwig, p.515)

Simultaneously, the Congressman vehemently was opposing the efforts and means that the French applied. Kennedy criticized the French policy on the ground that the age-old colonialist French policy had superseded the nationalistic attitude of the native people. The congressman in a radio broadcast emphasized upon the intricacies involved in the policies of Southeast Asia and urged for specific policies as solution. Kennedy emphasized that the Indo-Chinese states are dummy states and the dominance of the powerful nation France can be viewed as an illustration of colonialism and empire building. The expansion of Communism in the Southern states need to be arrested but not with the use of armed forces. Idealistically he argued to address the problem with infusing a nationalist non-Communist sentiment among the natives and to depend solely upon that as the prime force for safeguarding. He forecasted failure of the policies in absence of the infusion of the inherent nationalistic feelings. In subsequent years of his deliberation according to Kennedy, the French and U.S. Policy in Southeast Asia was seen as a clear departure from pragmatism towards idealism. (Bostdorff; Goldzwig, p.515)

However, he never dissuades himself from backing the policy of freedom. This led him to proclaim in 1956, "Vietnam represents the cornerstone of the Free World in Southeast Asia, the keystone to the arch, the finger in the dike." This remark influenced in many ways in his subsequent discourses relating to Vietnam situations. President Kennedy, during the years 1961 to 1963 vehemently used the idealistic terminologies to make the Americans enthusiastic in considering the Vietnamese crisis as a fraction of the fight between the freedom and communism. The President proclaimed the States to go to any extent possible for protecting the liberty in Vietnam. The Vietnam crisis according to Kennedy is an intricate and exclusive one in view of its historical, administrative, logistic and legal relationship with the America. These intricacies impel the States to resort to formulation of realistic policies to be successful in its Vietnamese operation. Kennedy however is better known for his realistic discourses. (Bostdorff; Goldzwig, p.515)

Philip Wander viewed the discourses of Presidents on foreign policy as an illustration of technical balance between intricacies and the proficiency to tackle them. However, the discourse of President Kennedy is better regarded as a mixture of idealism and pragmatism. More particularly, President Kennedy has resorted to the safe alterations between the approaches of idealism indicating the universal generalization of solutions and pragmatism necessary for its effective implementation. Such dependence upon two alternatives fetched him more oratory as well as leadership efficacies. It has been revealed by past studies that the intermingling of idealism and pragmatism is the basis of success of the discourses of the American leaders; however none could reveal the method of maintaining balance between these two by the American Presidents or the way these two categories of argumentations cater to the needs. (Bostdorff; Goldzwig, p.515)

Lyndon Johnson was however, criticized to have no confidence on the Vietnamese policy formulated in this line. Richard Nixon had gone to the extent of defending himself for not being a criminal, rhetorically resenting the Watergate scandal. The deficiency of the efficacy of Carter in addressing the issue of Iranian hostage, as revealed by the research made by Bostdorff, was seen primarily in terms of two views. First, he enhanced the importance of the event emphasizing the situation really as a disaster with the gesture of just avoiding the lighting ceremony of White House Christmas tree. The study did not advocate setting aside of the issue by Carter but the emphasis on crisis terminology enhanced the gravity of the situation in the eye of the public and the captors are alerted to make the most out of their preys. (Bostdorff; Goldzwig, p.515)

Second is his emphasis more on the idealistic principles in his speeches that led him to set the recovery of the hostages safely as the primary goal ignoring the political and legal issues involved with the plea that these are only creation and under control of the government. As sole dependence on principles of ideology is harmful similar is the case according to Bostdorff with that of pragmatic policies. She supported his ideas illustrating the stands taken by George Bush the President and James Baker the Secretary of State during Gulf War. Their pragmatic discourses emphasizing on oil, American Job put forth initially for justification were criticized which led them subsequently to cut a striking balance between the pragmatism and idealism more judiciously. (Bostdorff; Goldzwig, p.515)

Besides his sexual involvements, both his friends and foes attacked Bill Clinton for his formal assurances made in his discourses. However, in terms of fabricating the situations George W. Bush was said to form a group by himself. The situation is presently bettered designed. The discourses of Bush was aiming at smoothening the odds of conservational policies of sympathy, the benefits to common American worker out of the White House tax program, advantages of prescribed drug use etc. Bush soon after becoming the President prioritized education simultaneously devising the policy of tax cuts. He enchanted the legal experts and framers from both the ways in passing the bill that called for greater responsibility and at the same time bringing forth increasing resources. What is remarkable is subsequently he shifted the emphasis on funding. (Friedlin, Scorecard on Bush Finds Rhetoric Gap)

The Congressman out of this felt the genuineness of George Bush. However, in the Budget of 2003 George Bush claimed a reduced funding level of $22.1 billion against the authorization of the Congress for $29.2 billion. In the prioritized sector of Elementary Education and Secondary Education Bush claimed only $11.35 billion out of the $18.5 billion authorized by the Congress. Even during 2004 the same trend of shortage of $6 billion dollar against the authorization of the Congress was noticed. Bush persistently deliberated on his option towards Medicare. However, irrespective of his advocacy on health expenditure, a minute observation on the budget of the House of Republicans reveals a curtailment of 2.4 billion dollars in the programs that Bush committed to advocate. (Bennett; Pauken, All the President's Lies) The Bush administration has been criticized on the ground that though it seems much concerned on critical issues relating to women a close departure from the discourses and reality is noticeable more prominently. (Friedlin, Scorecard on Bush Finds Rhetoric Gap)


Honestly, however, it can be seen that the political discourses are being aimed to serve other objectives rather than simply put forth a description of real facts. It is evident that… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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