Risk Crisis Disaster Management Managing Essay

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The help that came from Australia included engineers and the medical team.

Although there had not been a great amount of emergency planning for such a disaster -- some 30% of all structures were "damaged or destroyed" and there was no electricity, plus the water was "often contaminated or destroyed" -- local organizations like "Surfaid" got involved and provided important strategic support. Surfaid (part of the extensive surfing community) had many contacts with local people because the organization had been "regularly performing primary care clinics in the Nias area" (Jackson, 200). In fact Surfaid had five surf charter boats that were used by emergency personnel to supply "essential aid such as food, oil, and shelter" for those seriously affected by the earthquake.

The fact that Surfaid was so closely linked to the population -- and that Surfaid immediately became a positive source of support -- is a good reminder for future planning for earthquake relief and disaster relief organizations, and for governments. The Red Cross is not always going to be available in emergencies; and in some remote areas those injured and left without water or food struggle to survive while waiting for assistance. Hence, governments should be pre-planning for disasters by training non-government organizations (NGOs) like Surfaid to use their resources in response to emergency needs.Buy full Download Microsoft Word File paper
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Essay on Risk Crisis Disaster Management Managing Assignment

On the subject of earthquakes and island nations, an article in the journal Disasters, explains how a highly sophisticated, "…multidisciplinary and multidimensional methodological approach to disaster analysis and safety policymaking" can be effective in terms of advanced planning (Delladetsima, et al., 2006, p. 469). The specific islands that were involved in this scholarly paper are the three islands of the Aegean Archipelagos (Chios, Kos, and Nissyros); and the authors offer two major sets of parameters vis-a-vis earthquake disaster planning in island environments: a) the geographical uniqueness of the island, its "socio-economic characteristics as shaped by the conditions of remoteness, isolation and self-sufficiency"; and b) the "exceedingly unpredictable and all-encompassing hazard in the Aegean Sea" which is linked to additional hazards like "landslides, submarine landslides, volcanic eruptions and tsunamis" (Delladetsima, 470).

The planning in this article relates to addressing an island's vulnerability and "coping capacity factors"; the two key aspects of planning for any island nation that is vulnerable to earthquakes are: one: a "closed system analysis" (what are the resources if emergency help is to be provided from within the island's resources?); and two, an "open system" (this relates to the "entry and exit" points for vulnerable components to be reached by outside sources) (Delladetsima, 478).

Managing Strategies for Global Climate Change

"Although climate change is a global problem, it's one that presents many different faces, ranging all the way from regulatory risk to competitive opportunity… [governments need to know] how to identify ways to mitigate risk and understand how to compete successfully in a carbon-constrained world" (Stewart, 2007, p. 14).

An article in the Australian ("Policy in a Smokescreen -- Climate Change -- Special Report -- Business & Environment Part 1") opens with a fact that is very pertinent to any nation attempting to mitigate the issue of climate change. Governments wrestling with strategies to address global warming "…are realizing the difficulty of trying to fix a truly global and inter-generational problem at the level of a sovereign government" (Warren, 2007, p. 1). The frustration that planners have in dealing with global warming is that there are 192 "different countries on earth," and each is ultimately responsible for taking stock of its own greenhouse gas emissions, Warren explains (p. 1).

And for each country, its own economic issues are directly tied into its efforts to mitigate greenhouse gases; while about 60% of the world's greenhouse gas emissions come from developed countries today, there will eventually be a shift as developing countries grow and increase the greenhouse gases they emit, Warren points out. As developing countries become competent to produce their own energy (through fossil fuels like coal and oil), are the developed countries going to be able to tell those third world nations they can't spew greenhouse gases into the atmosphere? The reality for those countries is that generating electricity by any means is an advancement and helps their citizens live more comfortably, notwithstanding greenhouse gas emissions. This is a problem that industrialized nations will have to contend with.

Meanwhile, for Australia, reducing emissions is likely more difficult than for other countries -- because the Australian economy and Australian exports "…are underwritten by an abundance of cheap fossil fuel energy." What is the solution then for Australia? "Low emission technologies" need to be put in place (renewable energy sources like solar, wind, and geothermal), the authors assert; also better insulation and retrofitting buildings will reduce the carbon footprint in Australia (Warren, p. 3).

The United Nations has been heavily involved in helping to determine why the climate is warming and what is causing the problem. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has been researching (with hundreds of scientists worldwide) and reporting on the effects of global climate change since 1988. By helping world leaders and citizens understand the reality of climate change -- through their empirical research and expert analysis -- the IPCC has played a major role in the strategies that countries and regions will need to adopt in order to mitigate, as best as possible, the ongoing threats to the environment, to communities, to citizens and wildlife.

For example, the IPCC was awarded the Nobel Peace Price in 2007 for its contribution to understanding the facts and the implications of climate change. The IPCC produces reports periodically to explain the latest findings on global warming, which does not always present solutions but prepares those leaders and heads of state for what may be expected from the ongoing rise in world temperatures. In its most recent report, "Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation," the IPCC points out that due to climate change, weather and climate-related disasters "have increased" and that has caused a loss of life and economic losses into the many billions of dollars.

The report addresses questions like: "How do social and environmental factors interact with weather and climate events to create disasters?"; and "…What can be done to make societies more resilient to extremes"? (IPCC, 2012). In the report's section titled "Renewable energy technologies and markets" the IPCC recommends that in order to reduce the rise in global temperatures by limiting the greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere, nations launch the following renewable sources: a) "bioenergy" (feedstocks like forest, agricultural and livestock residues can be used to "produce electricity or heat, or to create gaseous, liquid, or solid fuels" (; b) direct solar energy (using photovoltaics to produce heat and electricity) and passive solar energy (designing buildings that are south facing and capture the sun's warmth); c) geothermal energy (there are "hydrothermal" reservoirs that can access the heat from the earth's interior); d) hydropower (this energy source taps into the movement of water from higher to lower elevations, generating electricity; however, building dams on rivers and streams to produce hydro power disturbs the habitat for aquatic species in some cases); e) ocean energy (the chemical, thermal and kinetic energy of seawater "can be transformed to provide electricity, thermal energy, or potable water"; and f) wind energy (large wind turbines are being deployed "on a large scale" around the world to produce electricity, reducing the need for the burning of fossil fuels, which contribute greatly to greenhouse gas emissions) (IPCC).

There are problems with renewable energy (RE) sources, the IPCC reports, not the least of all is the high cost of many RE sources. Asking developing nations to invest huge amounts of money to avoid the problem of fossil fuel and greenhouse gases is not reasonable. However, the IPCC reports that many RE technologies -- "in various settings" -- are "economically competitive" and are readily available. Indeed, the cost of "most RE technologies has declined and additional expected technical advances would result in further cost reductions" (IPCC).

The IPCC expects that with additional cost reductions that are predicted, important new areas of technological advancement that can mitigate climate change; these areas include: a) new feedstock production and supply systems; b) biofuels "produced via new processes called next-generation or advanced biofuels"); c) advanced photovoltaic technologies and manufacturing processes; d) "enhanced geothermal systems"; e) enhanced "geothermal systems"; f) "multiple emerging ocean technologies"; and g) offshore wind energy.

Threats to America's Ability to Manage Global Climate Change

All the above-mentioned technologies are designed to be deployed in order to manage the "slow burn crisis" of global warming, which is not affecting the planet with the urgency that an earthquake or tsunami can, but is most certainly happening notwithstanding the counter arguments by those who feel that global warming is some kind of liberal conspiracy. For example, one of the leading candidates in the Republican Party (Rick Santorum) was quoted recently saying… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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