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Robotic SurgeryResearch Paper

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Robotic Surgery

Technological advancements have changed the requirements and standards in the field of medical science and the human assistance during surgical procedures is overtaken by robotic-systems in modern era. The utilization of robots in surgical procedures has not only made these procedures easier, but it has also played its part in getting effective surgical outcomes. These robotic-surgical processes are considered highly efficacious by patients as these procedures indicate improvement with respect to traditional surgical procedures The installation and application of robotic systems require large amount of investments which has made these procedures quite expensive.

History of Robotic Surgery

Media Coverage

Positive Aspects

Negative Aspects

Public Perception and Acceptance

REFERENCES

History of Robotic Surgery

Far-reaching developments in technology have led to the assistance provided by robotic-structures in medical-surgery procedures. Scientists have made dynamic attempts for the maximum utilization of robotic-structures in order to enhance the efficiency of surgical methods. The idea of using robotic-structure to perform humanoid activities was generated by Czech in the year 1921, which fascinated the innovators and caused them to introduce this idea in the field of medicine (Lanfranco et al., 2004). This idea has been intrigued in the practical studies and has become the center of study with the advancements in technology in order to aid the medical-surgery methods.

Dr. McEwen being the pioneer of robots in medical-science presented the very first robot in 1983 to perform certain tasks in surgery. The robotic-structure was used to provide facilitation in processes related to orthopaedical-surgeries. The process consisting of robots providing assistance in surgical processes by passing surgical-instruments and these robots were controlled and commanded by using the voice recognition mechanisms by surgeons. Moreover, these robots were utilized in the about 60 surgeries and the most enthralling assistance provided by these robots consisted of their applied help in the most challenging surgical-process of that time i.e. brain biopsy (Hockstein et al., 2007). The attainment of robots utilization in this process ensured that these robots can be used in more technical, time-taking and variety of surgeries.

The application of robots was further utilized in 1985, which involved the robotic assistance in performing the prostatic-surgery and the practical of this procedure took place in St. Thomas Hospital, London, and the procedure was directed by Dr. Nathan. Further advancement in the robotic-structures also enhanced the application of the robot, which was named as Robodoc, in hip-replacement and the procedure were facilitated by the cooperation of IBM (Lanfranco et al., 2004). Moreover, the heart by-pass surgical-method was also enhanced with the use of robots in 1998 in Germany and the outcomeof the surgical-procedures proved that the efficiency and effectiveness of the surgery is increased with the application of robots known as Da Vinci in surgical-processes and hence, the robots proved to be more beneficial in crucial surgeries. In 2006, the robot was assigned to technically process the surgery on human-male for the heart and the study also demonstrated its high efficiency in the success of surgery with respect to human-surgeons. By the year 2009, the robots have been upgraded to respond to force-feedback during the operation and crucial surgeries like kidney transplant and bladder reconstruction have become possible with increased efficiency (Yates et al., 2011).

The combined work accompanied by NASA and DAPRA resulted in the development of a robotic-sysem which was able to conduct telesurgery in which the physical presence of the surgeon was not required and the robot was directed remotely by the surgeon in order to perform the surgery. The utilization of telesurgery proved its efficiency in laparoscopic surgeries with the increased rate of dexterity with respect to human-operated surgeries (Hockstein et al., 2007).

Although, the robotic-surgery is proven beneficial and dexterous in medical science, but the technology is not yet proven to be fully dependable, therefore, this advancement in robotic technology is still in its developing stage and further studies and improvements are required to enhance its effectiveness. The excursion of robots generated by Czech has taken its form in reality and over the period of time its utilization has been enhanced, but further advancements are also crucial and necessary to aid the medical surgeries.

Media Coverage

2.1 Positive Aspects

The application of robotic-systems in order to conduct operations regarding laparoscopic surgeries, in which surgeons are required to make small incisions in human body and the process could be complicated, but the utilization of robots increases the visual aid to the surgeons by providing the three-dimensional sight which causes the surgeon to operate surgical methods in a much better way. The picture generated by the robotic-structure provides the surgeons with enhanced view about the insights of human tissue so that surgeons can manipulate the operating process accordingly (Lanfranco et al., 2004).

Furthermore, robots increase the stability of the operating process with respect to human-hands, and thus this stability of incision leads to the surgeons being able to contact with specific areas and tissues in a perfect manner, which on the other hand, if operated manually by surgeons then the instability of human-hands or shakes could have led to the adverse results of operations. Therefore, the enhanced view and surgeon's capability to reach complex tissues decrease the number of incisions made in each surgery because the miniature surgical-robots inside the human body provide the surgeons with the ability to maneuver inside tissues and operate accordingly, which ultimately increases the attainment of surgical outcomes (Corcione et al., 2005).

The experimental study conducted by White, J. (2013) in which the robots and surgeons performed their given tasks of surgeries which proved that the surgeries performed by robots was more precisely done and took less time as compared to traditional surgeries conducted by surgeons. Moreover, the results of the study also contained the evidence that the patients who were operated by robots informed that their recovery was at faster pace and the empirical studies showed that the recovery rate was 20% faster than the recovery of patients who were operated traditionally by surgeons.

The surgery, which is operated with the assistance of robotic-systems tends to have fewer complications than the surgeries which are operated conventionally. The sterilization and anti-bacterial structure of robots have also proved to be less infectious for patients due to which the patients recover at faster pace resulting in the achievement of their health objectives. The patients who have been operated with robotic-systems are exposed to lesser pain during the surgeries due to the microscopic incisions and manipulation. These aspects of robotic-surgery systems have ultimately caused the decrease in the hospitalization days of patients and faster recovery (Abbou et al., 2001).

The technological advancements has been made to facilitated health care services, although these inventions and advancements can make the complex surgeries possible and can visualize the tissues and cysts that are not visible to the human eye. The continuous advancements in this field have made its attempts to contribute in the betterment of the healthcare services. The surgeries that are partly operated by robots and medical staff traditionally has proved to reduce the overall time required for the surgical process and the surgical-process is found to be less painful for the patients.

2.2 Negative Aspects

There are only few surgeries that can be operated with the assistance of robots whereas these exists a vast area of surgical-methods that are needed to be acquainted with robots. The continuous upgrade and maximum utilization of robotic-systems will increase the additional costs in the surgical procedures and thus, the overall cost of the surgical-procedure will be exalted and will become less affordable for the patients. It has also been believed by the experts that technological enhancements in terms of software upgrades and faster processor installations in these robots will make the surgical process efficient but costly (Lanfranco et al., 2004).

The application of robots is applying for the benefits of mankind in terms of health carefacilities, but these robots are exceptionally large in size and their installation requires larger operating rooms as compared to nowadays' operating rooms. Furthermore, the movement and passage of robotic arms during the surgical process will be infuriating for the operating staff that is usually required around patients during the surgical process. Therefore, the utilization of robots in hospitals will require the larger rooms for their facilitation which will of course increase the overall cost of the project. The idea for miniaturization of robots is likeable but the process of remodeling will take time including the cost of advanced research will be increased. The robotic technology was introduced in medical-science with the basic objective of cost reduction for the patients and efficiency but the continuous research and development in robotic-systems will cause the continuous increase of cost in their application in surgical procedures.

The robotic surgery can assist the surgical processes in certain surgeries whereas human assistance and surgeons are required to operate these robots. The surgeons and medical staff are profoundly trained in traditional surgeries, but they intensely require the proper training in order to operate the robotic-system. The availability of trained surgeons to operate robots… [END OF PREVIEW]

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