Research Paper: Rocks Land and Sea

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Rocks, Land and Sea

Sea Level: What is relative sea level (RSL)? What is eustatic sea level? How is sea level measured? What are two (2) issues associated with using this (that) method to ascertain changes in sea level over time? What are three (3) potential problems associated with rising sea level (transgressive environment) along a coast? What is transgressive environment? Regressive environment?

Relative sea level is the position of the ocean in comparison with the land. It is measured using a number of tools including: tide gauges, GPS units and the re-leveling of previous surveys. Two issues associated with utilizing any one of these methods is the rise of oceans in contrast with past readings and accounting for possible anomalies in measurements. Three potential problems with rising sea levels include: the destruction of the coast line, tidal inlets and back barrier lagoons. A transgressive environment is when the ocean is overwhelming the geographical features of the land. A regressive environment is where the ocean is quickly destroying land masses that protect the shoreline (such as: marshes). (Gronitz, 2007, pp. 183 -- 187)

Minerals, Rocks & Mineral Resources: What is a mineral? What are 5 physical properties of minerals? Offer 5 examples of minerals: 2 of Silicate minerals, 2 non-silicates and 1 evaporite mineral. What is a silicate tetrahedron? Name 2 energy (mineral) resources and 3 non-energy mineral resources. What is Petrology? What is Diagenesis? Define an Igneous rock and offer 2 examples, Define Sedimentary rock and offer 2 examples and define Metamorphic rock then offer 2 examples. What is the difference between a Reserve and a Resource? Can one change into another? What are the major exploration methods (general categories)

A mineral is a solid chemical substance that is formed through the biogeochemical process. The five properties include: silicate, diagenisis, igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic. Some examples of silicate are: aluminum and iron. Two non-silicate minerals include: quartz and calcium. A few examples of evaporite minerals are: fluorite and sylvite. A silicate tetrahedron is a rock with special features that increases their strength to: include garnets and micas. Three energy mineral resources are: oxide, carbonate and phosphate. Three non-energy minerals include: the organic, sulfide and element compounds. Petrology is studying the origins of a rocks formation. Diagenisis is when there is a change the compound after its initial formation. An igneous rock is something that is formed through fire. Some examples include: volcanic glass and feldspars. A sedimentary compound is formed by erosion and sediments building up over the course of time. Two examples are: sandstone and limestone. A metamorphic rock is when the compound will change forms. Some examples include: slate and marble. Reserves are considered to be readily extractable. While resources, are the minerals in the ground which have not been reached. Yes, these can change into other forms. The major exploration methods include: remote and sensing techniques. (Pipkin, 2010, pp. 2 -- 166)

Hydrology: Define the following terms; ground water, hydraulic head, water table, aquifer, aquaclude. Does ground water move slow or fast? What is issue with contaminants in ground water? Briefly describe or explain the meaning of the term hydraulic head, water table, aquifer, aquaclude for instance the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Why can salt water intrusion be a major problem in coastal areas such as on the agricultural Eastern Shore of Maryland?

Ground water is the useable substance that is readily available for someone to consume. A hydraulic head is the measure that is utilized to analyze the liquid pressure of the water. A water table is the surface where the pressure head and atmospheric pressure are equal. An aquifer is a layer of rock that contains gravel, sand or silt (from which water can be extracted). An aquaclude is an imperiable layer of rock that acts as a barrier (which is preventing the flow of ground water). As a result, ground water is moving fast. The contaminants can make it undrinkable. The hydraulic head, water table, aquifer and aquaclude for the Chesapeake Bay are working together to provide communities and farmers with accessible water. This is because the runoff and the primary sources are located in same area. As a result, salt water intrusion can destroy the water table. (Pipkin,… [END OF PREVIEW]

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