Role of Nurses in Dealing Essay

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However, it can be seen that attitudes are slowly but surely changing, as people have started to look at the HIV / AIDS infected as members of the community and not a disease.

Often, HIV / AIDS combines with other STDs and diseases like tuberculosis (primarily in homeless males) which exacerbates the condition of the person infected with HIV / AIDS and will continue to do so unless the 'cure' is administered and the patient is removed from the environment that helped foster conditions leading to the infection.

In order to tackle the growing problem of HIV / AIDS, the White House initiated the National AIDS Strategy (NAS) in July 2010 with three basic necessary goals of lowering infection rates, allowing increased access to care for those infected, and eradicating all inconsistencies in predominance, diagnosis, and treatment of the virus.

The major results that the NAS is targeting to achieve by 2015 include reducing the quantity of new yearly infections by 25%, inciting an increase to 90% of people with HIV who know they are infected, increasing the percentage of newly diagnosed patients linked to care within 3 months from 65% to 85%, and raising by 20% the percentage of HIV-positive MSM, blacks, and Hispanics with untraceable viral masses. In summary, the objectives are to spread awareness and timely diagnose infected members of the population in order to treat them.

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The only treatment for HIV / AIDS that has been chalked down by the medical professionals so far is the administration of anti-retroviral drugs that is given in combinations of three or more anti-viral drugs; a treatment termed as antiretroviral therapy (ART). The goal of this treatment is to decrease the mortality and morbidity that is associated with HIV. The mechanism of action of these drugs is that it decreases the viral load of HIV in the patient.The five major classes of drugs which are combined in various ways to treat HIV / AIDS arenon-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI), nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI), entry inhibitors (including fusion inhibitors and CCR5 antagonists), protease inhibitors (PI), and integrase inhibitors.

Essay on Role of Nurses in Dealing Assignment

Since the antiretroviral treatment of people with HIV remains complicated, ever-improving, often surrounded by controversy and is expensive, these drugs do not constitute an actual remedy for HIV / AIDS. However, if therapy is stopped, there will be a rise in the viral load present in the infected person's body. During the process of ART, the virus continues to multiply and the person is still infectious to others.

While discontinuation of ART leads to an increase in the viral load, it is sometimes necessary to interrupt ART because of such reasons as serious drug toxicity, overriding illness, surgery, or lack of access or shortage of medications. Nonetheless, planned interruption is not recommended even if short-term interruption may become unavoidable. Disturbing the duration of ART intensifies the danger of HIV / AIDS-related complications, deteriorating CD4 counts, and other non-AIDS-related complications, like heart attack and liver failure.

While prolonging and bettering lives of people with HIV / AIDS, the continuing use of some of these drugs escalates the risk of liver problems, pancreatitis, skin rashes, stroke, osteoporosis, diabetes, neuropathy high cholesterol, and heart disease. Some of the skin rashes can be life-threatening, such as the ones that develop in Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), which are variants of the same kind of skin rash. The rashes formed in TENcan cover up to 30% of the total body skin area. Both these severe rashes must be treated by a physician.

Anti-retroviral drugs may also interact with other drugs used to treat opportunistic infections. For example, researchers reported that using oral erythromycin while taking protease inhibitors increased the risk of sudden death from cardiac causes. Those living longer with HIV / AIDS, many cultivate drug-resistant strains of the virus, which further complicates treatment.

Because of the various complications attached to the administration of ART, only the most efficacious in their field should be entrusted with the task of taking care of what is basically a human time bomb. Some of these health risks are associated with the socioeconomic issues like denial, rejection; biased attitudes and absence of availability of healthcare are fueling the epidemic, especially where the homeless Orange County population of middle-aged men is concerned. Therefore, health professionals, specifically nurses, have a pivotal part to play in screening and in enlightening patients, families and communities about prevention and attitude towards infected people. Nurses can also communicate by example, through providing unbiased, considerate care to those living with this fatal virus.Only by making these actions their priority can health officials help accomplish the goals of the National AIDS Strategy.

Problem Description and Rationale

Among the causes of HIV / AIDS, none involve casual contact such as hugging or shaking hands, as is the common misconception among the ignorant masses. The causes that affect the aggregate community we are assessing the most, are the use of injection drugs, mental problems and risky sexual behavior.

The necessary conditions for the transmission of HIVare: an HIV source, an adequate dose of virus and entry in the bloodstream of another person (Evans, 2011). Even though fluctuating degrees of viral loads are present in all bodily fluids of a carries, only semen, blood, vaginal and cervical secretions, and breast milk are evidenced as transmitting the infection.

Among the homeless men who were reported as users of cocaine, those claiming high psychiatric distress had considerably greater HIV risk scores than those of cocaine users with low psychiatric distress homeless men who did not use cocaine. Furthermore, these risk scores mainly signified three highly risky sexual behaviors; participation in commercial sex, multiple sex partners, and lack of condom use (Zanis et al., 2009). Special efforts that target both substance use and high-risk sexual practices need to be effected for this community. Since the contact of these men with the medical community is restricted and unrelated to HIV / AIDS risk, mental health and substance abuse management, development programs in areas in which homeless men gather, along with stable supportive housing may aid in the lessening of HIV risk among homeless men more efficiently.

A multi-dimensionalviewpoint was employed in a study to evaluate the links between situational and psychosocial variables, health care, and HIV / AIDS risk behaviors among 479 homeless men, starting from age 18 up to 64, HIV / AIDS risk behaviors were greatly linked to chronic homelessness and PTSD (Stein et al., 1997).

During 2004 -- 2007, approximately two-thirds of newly infected injection drug users (IDUs) were males (Evans, 2011), yet countless IDUs still participated in risky behaviors like those of sharing syringes as well as having sex without protection. People mired in poverty, self-esteem issues, mental health problems and anxiety or depression are more likely to turn to injection-drug use (IDU). The temporary relief that the use of drugs provide is not nearly enough compensation for the further issue they create. Moreover, drugs available on streets, especially those not approved by the FDA, may have dangerous reactions to AIDS medications.

The Healthy North Carolina 2020 objectives lay down a collective set of health indicators for Orange County and all of Floridaaim to work and improve upon to attain the targets allotted to every objective working as a guide and as a yardstick to measure state performance for the protection of the aggregate community we have assessed. The relevant health objectives that the state should focus on using its various official and unofficial programs and projects which were mentioned above are: decreasing the percentage of individuals living in poverty from the current (2009 statistic) of 16.9% to 12.5%; reducing the percentage of persons aged 12 years and older admitting to any illegal drug use in the previous 30 days from (2008 statistic) 7.8% to 6.6%; and loweringthe rate of new HIV infection diagnoses (per 100,000 population) from 24.7% to 22.2% (Healthy North Carolina 2020: A Better State of Health, 2013).

Conclusion

The nurses and other health officials have a central role to play, along with the independent and state-owned projects, for the sole purpose of reigning in the alarmingly steady rise of the spread of HIV / AIDS. As a state with one of the largest number of those with HIV / AIDS in the U.S., Florida needs to work hard to fulfill the Healthy North Carolina 2020 objectives, especially to target its weakest community; the one which this paper has discussed in great detail. The main causes of homelessness have been identified as lack of income and affordability, mental health problems and substance abuse, which also happens to be one of the main causes of HIV among homeless men of Orange County between ages 40-50, where IDUs are concerned, along with risky sexual behaviors, especially among the MSM population.

Since these issues have been highlighted, it has become… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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