Research Paper: Runway Incursions That Lead

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[. . .] (Williams, 2008)

The International Civil Aviation Organization published its Manual on the Prevention of Runway Incursions" in 2007 and states that several U.S. states along with international organizations have developed extensive programs geared toward the reduction of runway incursion risks. There are several recurring scenarios cited in the manual for incidents involving runway incursions including: (1) when an aircraft or vehicle is crossing on front of an aircraft that is landing; (2) when an aircraft or vehicle crosses in front of an aircraft that is taking off; (3) when an aircraft or vehicle is crossing the runway-holding position marking; (4) when an aircraft or vehicle is unsure of its position and accidentally enters a runway that is active; (5) when a breakdown in communications occurs resulting in a failure to follow the instructions of air traffic control; and (6) when an aircraft passes being an aircraft or vehicle that has not left the runway. Runway incursions can be avoided through use of technology applications including technology that serves to raise situational awareness. Heads-up guidance systems (HGS) can also be useful. HGS is a graphic cockpit display that includes taxi route and clearance limit in addition to a device that alerts and warns about deviations. Traffic situation displays including air/ground conflict information should be developed and installed by airlines, manufactures, and operators as well as should anti-blocking technology for voice communication. (Runway Incursion Joint Safety Analysis Team, 2000, paraphrased) It is advised that regulators and operat5ors install lighting that better marks the runway exist and taxi route and that visual aids that are not ambiguous should be installed to provide a signal of clearance for entering a runway that is active. The FAA is advised to require that SMGCS be implemented at airports during operations in conditions of low visibility and that runway-vacated guidance be installed at airports. (Runway Incursion Joint Safety Analysis Team, 2000) Included among interventions focused on reduction of runway incursions are such as airlines and operators ensuring that "command oversight training is provided for captains" and that they "encourage a culture that emphasizes safe arrivals over timely arrivals." (Runway Incursion Joint Safety Analysis Team, 2000 ) Suggested as well is that a system be implemented that will provide automatic transmission of instructions and information between the aircraft and the ground controller. Airlines operators and service providers should "implement transmission of instructions and information between the aircraft and the ground via a computer rather than through voice communications

Findings and Conclusion

This study has examined the occurrences of runway incursions and how these accidents occur and has found that many of the accidents could be avoided quite easily and are due to lack of communication, failure to understand communications, condition clearance confusion, angled taxi lanes, failure to transfer aircraft control from ground to tower quickly enough, and predominant in the studies reviewed is the factor of 'haste'. The variations in the design of aerodromes also results in confusion leading to runway incursions. There have been a great many recommendations made by various committees that would assist in the prevention of runway incursions. This study has been too brief to report on all the problems that result in runway incursions or to report on all the solutions and interventions that have been cited to prevent the problem of runway incursions. However, it has been noted in this study that poor communication between the ground and tower are one cause of runway incursions and in fact incidents on the ground are the primary cause of runway incursions which can be avoided through use of technology and communication applications and which should be implemented at all airline locations.


Landsberg, B. (1998) Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association. Runway incursions: A perfect example of the accident chain. Jan Vol. 41, No. 1. Retrieved from:

Landsberg, B. (1998) Runway Incursions: A perfect example of the accident chain. Retrieved from:

Manual on the Prevention of Runway Incursion (2007) International Civil Aviation Organization. Retrieved from: y%20Incursion%20Manual-final_full_fsix.pdf

Runway Incursion Airport Assessment Report (2002) Technology Assessment Team (TAT) Dec 2002. Retrieved from:

Runway Incursion Joint Safety Analysis Team (JSAT) (2000) Retrieved from:

Williams, P. (2008) Runway Incursions A review… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Cite This Research Paper:

APA Format

Runway Incursions That Lead.  (2012, November 15).  Retrieved April 21, 2019, from

MLA Format

"Runway Incursions That Lead."  15 November 2012.  Web.  21 April 2019. <>.

Chicago Format

"Runway Incursions That Lead."  November 15, 2012.  Accessed April 21, 2019.