Sampled, and the Various Essay

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[. . .] The field research method is mostly used on small sample sizes because it needs high cost and more time as compared to other research methods. In this research method, the researcher cannot control biasness factor of respondents.

Experimental Research Method

The purpose of experimental research is also to observe the phenomena but in a controlled environment. In this method, the researcher can control variables. Sometimes, researchers have biasness but it can be reflective to the research, as because of the controlled environment researchers can have control over variables. It can also be combined with other research methods for better severity. Using experimental research method, the results obtained may only apply to one situation and may be difficult to replicate. Sampling can be another weakness of this method; sampling may not be representative of all population, which can affect the results, and political pressure may also affect the results of research.

Survey Research Method

The purpose of the survey research method is to monitor the phenomena by contacting organizations and communities directly or indirectly. Surveys are useful to describe the characteristics of a large population. No other method of observation may provide the overall capacity; therefore very large samples are feasible so that statistically significant results can be obtained even in the multivariate analysis. There is flexibility in the development phase to decide how the questions will be administered: the interviews face-to-face, by telephone, as a group administered by written or oral inquiry or through electronic. In survey research method, the researcher must ensure that a large number of the selected sample will reply, otherwise results will not be true. It may be hard for participants to recall information or to tell the truth about a controversial question which can lead to the respondents not giving all answers seriously or honestly. These are all factors can affect the reliability of results of this research method.

Use of Research Methods

Field Research Method

A field study is an experiment that is conducted in the "real" world (natural environment). Different from studies and observational studies, a field experiment follows all the steps of the scientific process, containing research questions and generates hypotheses.

The noticeable benefit of a field study is that it is realistic and allows for testing, without unnaturally introducing confusing variables. Social scientists and psychologists usually use blind field experiments, where the variable is not even aware that they are under control. For example, if we want to study the effects of a medicine, we'll instruct the subject not to drink the alcohol, and will study the effects of medicine by observing the subject - but there is no guarantee that the said subject will actually follow the instructions.

Experimental Research

Discovering the relationships between two (independent and dependent) variables is the key to experimental research. In theoretical terms, this means that the relationship between an action, X, is the only one that creates the effect of Y. For example, pressing the accelerator of your car will increase the speed of your car: it is obvious that pressing the accelerator of car only, nothing else, made the car speed up. In addition, you might conclude that there is a casual relationship between pressing the accelerator of car and increase in car speed, not only because one causes another but because you are sure that nothing else caused the effect.

Survey Research Method

Survey research method is used to observe phenomena at a broad level. The researcher selects a sample of respondents from the population and a standardized questionnaire for them. The questionnaire or survey can be a written document that is completed by the respondent, an online questionnaire, a face-to-face or phone interview. Through surveys, it is possible to collect data from large and small populations. For example, if we want to know the popularity of a politician among people, we will conduct a survey to get the response that population. For this purpose, we would select a sample. Then, we would conduct the research by using the instrument of research, either interview people or use questionnaires for this purpose. After getting the data, we would then analyze it and get the results of this research.

References:

Babbie, Earl R (1973) "Survey Research Methods" Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub. Co.

Experiment Resources (2008) "Experimental Research" Retrieved 7th May 2011 from Experiment Resources: http://www.experiment-resources.com/experimental-research.html

Shuttleworth, Martyn (2009) "Field Experiments" Retrieved 7th May 2011 from Experiment Resources: http://www.experiment-resources.com/field-experiments.html [end of preview; READ MORE]

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