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School Buildings Annotated Bibliography What Factors PertainAnnotated Bibliography

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School Buildings

Annotated Bibliography

What factors pertain to good school design and how can these factors support health, well-being, and the educational attainment of students?

Schools for the twenty-first century: school design and educational transformation

The importance of school building design is receiving increasing attention as the importance of design can be a moderating factor in educational attainment. The Building Schools for the Future programme represents the biggest single UK government investment in school buildings for over 50 years and as a result investors want to ensure that the design is world-class (Leiringer & Cardellino, 2011). The program is set to rebuild half of the secondary schools in England and has set a goal of "educational transformation." Yet these goals are vaguely defined and factors that can help the schools be successful are unclear.

To better understand the role of the educational environment researchers studied four "exemplar" schools in Scandinavia that have shown how innovative design can contribute to a student's educational needs and the broader community in general. The study found that the design of school spaces is an important component that should be thoroughly considered in the planning stage of the project. Each design must be unique however and be tailored to the values and specific needs of the end users. If the building is not based upon these values and educational styles, then the design could actually be counterproductive.

Green School Buildings.

One of the most focuses on new school building construction is on creating sustainable spaces for student education. One of the primary ways to evaluate the sustainability of a design is through the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) that was created with the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) building rating system which serves as the primary sustainable assessment for buildings (Beckrich, 2012). Some of the factors of construction that this assessment will consider include items such as practices in site selection and development, water and energy use, environmentally preferred materials, waste stream management, indoor air quality, innovation in sustainable design, and construction.

This article provides an introduction to the issues related to sustainable design and provides many resources to become familiar with the different factors associated with sustainable design. The resources related to school facilities and their associated bodies that can assist schools in improving existing buildings depend on which phase a school is in their construction. For example, The USGBC has a Green Existing Schools Toolkit to help plan these transformations and earn LEED for Existing Buildings certification for school that have already been constructed (Beckrich, 2012).

Improvement of the Sustainability of Existing School Buildings According to the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Protocol: A Case Study in Italy.

Students spend much of their time in school buildings and there should be certain priorities set for these buildings such as sustainable design and a high quality of indoor air among others. Most of the new school buildings constructed adhere to high standards. However, many of the older existing buildings remain a challenge and can be characterized by poor quality. The energy retrofit of existing school buildings in recent years is part of the policies of the European Union and, consequently, of the Member States and rarely do these measures consider aspects other than energy (Dali'O, et al., 2013).

The environmental qualities of buildings that are already establish, especially older school buildings, is one potential area that can see vast improvements. One study in Italy looked at the feasibility to implement considerable improvements in the environmental quality of 14 school buildings located in northern Italy: the objective is to ensure the requirements for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)® certification (Dali'O, et al., 2013). The researchers found that there is a technical feasibility to achieve between 42 and 54 LEED credits as well as cost effective. Policies in the future should focus not only on creating new structures, but to focus on existing structures as well.

A Case for Schoolhouse Aesthetics.

Much of the literature focuses on sustainable issues in school design such as indoor air quality, energy efficiency, and reducing the total impacts on the environment. Yet the aesthetics of buildings, especially schools, is a factor that is not as salient as some of the factors associated with sustainability. Aesthetics is the branch of philosophy concerned with art, beauty, and taste, with emphasis on sensory… [END OF PREVIEW]

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