School Finance: Its Economics Term Paper

Pages: 15 (4783 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 1+  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Economics

SAMPLE EXCERPT:

[. . .] They also need to explore the avenues for implementing the state-controlled full funded system. They need to increase the bases for revenue to increase the sales tax base for state and local governments. This is to include non-taxed goods and more services. There is also a necessity to replace sources of revenue for school financing from local to state sources. At the same time it is essential to pursue non-tax sources by reducing preferential treatment to the incomes, property taxes and retirement and other age-related incomes, which are presently avoided. This is essential to increase the state revenue for school funding. (Terman, and Richard, 1997).

Property tax to support schools

The local governments provide funding to schools by depending on a major share of the property taxes. They provide for the education of students mostly on the values of property and the number of students in each district, or in other terms intend to pay for property value per pupil. Since property taxes are the prime largest providers of financing for schools, children are especially prone to property tax abatements and diversions. But in spite of that it should be understood that property tax is still a regressive tax. There are also widespread inequalities within America in the context of Terman, Donna L., and Richard E. Behrman. "Financing Schools: Analysis and Recommendations." The Future of Children 7 (Winter 1997), 4-23.

A the state and local taxes. Even though the federal constitution does not suggest that there should be equality in financing of education, an increase in providing finance to state governments on an equal basis could reduce the inequalities in school financing. At the same time it could be helpful in reducing the burden of the decrease in the property taxes. What is needed is that the Federal Government in America should make provisions for new laws based on Act 60 and provide increased contributions to school financing. This would be helpful to improve the quality of schools and an equitable distribution of the funds of the country. The country's poorer school districts could benefit as a result of this. In this way the movement from regressive and volatile local property tax to the progressive income tax of the Federal Government would be helpful in moving more of the tax burden on Americans. Policy makers and reformers are of the view that the property tax system promotes wide disparities between wealthy suburban school districts and rural and inner-city schools. In this matter the per-pupil spending has moved from a low of $6,000 to as high as that of $14,000. (Odden; Picus, 1992)

Judicial Reviews of School Finance Policy with Evolving Standards of Equality

The judicial remedies in response to school funding systems enable to make schools more equal or adequate. This is done by the Judiciary in terms of directing increase in educational spending to school districts, which are not equally competitive or successful. The recent lawsuits are those, which are concerned with whether schools or school

Allan, R., Odden & Lawrence, O. Picus. "School finance: A policy perspective." New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc. (1992) districts meet constitutionally promoted education without giving consideration for the financing of education or disparities on the basis of per-pupil. There is an increasing tendency towards promoting equality in financing schools. This is because supreme courts in several states have realized that school finance systems are unconstitutional. (Van Slyke, 1995) Equality in funding has become a major concern of policymakers and lawmakers since the Brown vs. Board of Education. According to the suggestions provided by the courts a number of ways have been devised in order to equalize the funding of school districts. According to the courts it is the responsibility of a state to promote quality schools, which would be efficient enough to provide students who are the future citizens of the development of being good citizens and to promote productively to the economy to develop a positive personality. Supreme court decisions in Massachusetts, Wyoming, Alabama, Arkansas, Wisconsin, New York and North Carolina are of the opinion that the state is responsible not only for providing equality in funding but also for ensuring that schools follow high codified standards, are able to provide resources to disadvantaged students and, of the responsibility of promoting that instruction provided is of a high quality. (Van Slyke, 1995)

In the Leandro case in North Carolina, the court gave the ruling that economically disadvantaged students need to be provided services and opportunities more than that is Van Slyke, D., Alexander, T. & Orland, M. "School Finance Litigation: A Review of Key Cases." Washington, DC: The Finance Project. (1995).

A required to the general student population. On the other hand the Wyoming Supreme court, in its recent Campbell II decision, makes clear that along with the responsibility of the state to provide equality in funding it is also required by the state to provide the best educational opportunities to disadvantaged students, whether they are poor, non-English speaking or even disabled. The Supreme Court decisions of various states bring about a small but of course considerable positive change in the matter of financing school finances. In those where courts have made the ruling for equitable distribution the financing system have become more equitable than before. Courts are in a better position to set the agendas for legislatures. In thus setting the agendas for legislatures the more chances are there for the legislatures to deal successfully with school reforms. Given the involvement of the courts in the reforming the finance of schooling in a considerable manner, it would be helpful for courts to find ways in order to link financing of schools with that of the choice of schools proposals for providing judicial remedies. (Verstegen; Whitney, 1997)

School-Based Decision Making:

In organizational culture when power and control remain values of central importance decision-making power would be at the top of the organizational chart. School-based Shared Decision-making, would break the paradigm of the schoolwork calendar, give

Deborah A., Verstegen and Terry Whitney. "From Courthouses to Schoolhouses: Emerging Judicial Theories of Adequacy and Equity." Education Policy 11 (Sept. 1997), 330-352.

A valuable prioritization to the time available and would consider planned abandonment. The staff development, which has been ongoing, would be done through allocation of resources. This would stress on skills in conflict resolution, team building, communication, problem solving, understanding the change-process and consensus building. For shared decision-making it is essential that beliefs, core values, and vision for the school district be shared. It is essential to recognize new roles and responsibilities, value the differences in individual belief systems, developing a knowledge base approach to decision-making, create collaborative stakeholders who are culture-valuing for contributing to the decision-making process, provide training and resources to develop shared decision-making skills. (Terman, Behrman, 1997)

It is also necessary to provide acquisition of skills through real-life training opportunities for stakeholders, make creative use of freedoms currently available under the law, ensure training which provides an understanding of the importance of assessment and awareness of the change process, identify and implement clearly defined values, beliefs, vision, mission and broad policies, It is necessary to be able to ensure that administrators and the board accept a shared decision-making process, promote a safe environment for the process to work, help participants develop a holistic understanding of the roles each must play, seek legislation that minimizes individual liability for decisions made as a part of a decision-making team, strive to move away from an adversarial bargaining culture, develop a core of shared beliefs from individual beliefs, define decision parameters and Donna L. Terman, and Richard E. Behrman. "Financing Schools: Analysis and Recommendations." The Future of Children 7 (Winter 1997), 4-23.

A supporting and assisting administrators in implementation of a shared decision-making model and provide clear communication relative to issues. (Rossmiller, 1994)

Family Choice of Schooling: (According to the system of American education schools would be different from one another instead of being similar and families would be in a position in which they should be free to choose from among the schools, which offer a wide variety of educational opportunities. It was around the year 1970 that federal and state governments in America had for the first time had the ability to recognize that choice for schooling should be granted to all families and it was an issue that would be desirable and could be achieved. In the year 1974 some teachers together formed a system of choice among public schools in East Harlem's District 4. It was a system in which the schools existed within schools. It was a system, which was arranged with providing a choice to families with regard to schooling. But it was not till 1983 that a complete rethinking of the necessity of choice of schooling in entire public education system of America had begun. It would be sensible to reach an understanding and conclusion about family choice in schooling in the United States in the… [END OF PREVIEW]

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