Term Paper: Science and Art of Management

Pages: 7 (2195 words)  ·  Style: MLA  ·  Bibliography Sources: 3  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: Business - Management  ·  Buy for $19.77

SAMPLE EXCERPT:

[. . .] They can invest time in employees and train them. As a result, the whole organization will benefit from a skilled and trained workforce. This frame works on the notion that the structure of an organization is a beautiful but hollow shell if it does not allow the people to use their intelligence and energy to assist the organization. (Bolman and Deal)

The human relations frame works on the following assumptions:

Organization are made to fulfil the demands of human beings and not vice versa.

The relationship between the organizations and people is a need-based relation and both the sides need each other.

If the equation of relationship between an individual and an organization is asymmetric, the individual and the organization both will suffer.

On the other hand, if the equation is balanced, both sides will benefit from the relationship. (Bolman and Deal)

Political Frame

This frame works on the notion that the structure of an organization is bound to fail. There are places where structure and rationality will not work. The frame portrays the idea that the structure is eventually taken over by office politics. People gather and talk about what is correct and incorrect in the organization and this leads to a chain reaction which triggers politics. According to this frame, politics is the right way to make decisions for an organization. (Bolman and Deal)

The political frame works on the following assumptions:

Organizations are associations consisting of different people and groups.

There are certain differences between the thinking, perception and beliefs of these people. These beliefs change really slowly.

Allocation of scarce resources is the most important decision made by organizations.

Hence, the decisions of an organization are related to allocation of resources among people, with power being the most important resource. This leads to conflict.

The final decision is reached by bargaining and struggling to get a good position among all the groups. (Bolman and Deal)

Symbolic Frame

The symbolic frame is the most unconventional of the four frames described by Bolman and Deal. It works on the notion that the organization and its ups and downs cannot be measured and controlled. It is dependent on the culture of the organization rather than calculations and measurement. The symbolic frame makes the management see beyond the normal tangible elements to find out the factors that matter the most. These factors are embedded to the culture of the organization. The symbolic frame does not approve negativity like the political frame. (Bolman and Deal)

The following assumptions rule the symbolic frame:

The most important thing about an event is not what happened but what meaning was interpreted out of it.

Two same events may not have the same meaning. It depends on who suffered from the event and how did they interpret it.

The events that happen in complex organizations are normally very ambiguous and therefore, it is very difficult to find out how or why it happened.

As the level of ambiguity climbs, it becomes difficult to apply rational methods to find out about the event.

In order to remove this uncertainty and ambiguity, human symbols are used in order to reduce the level of confusion.

Many events that occur in organizations are important for the change they bring in peoples' lives rather than their outcomes. (Bolman and Deal)

The symbolic frame forsakes rationality in order to find out how people function in situations using the support of culture. It focuses more on the meaning of an event rather than its result. (Bolman and Deal)

Works Cited

Bolman, Lee G, and Terrence E. Deal. Reframing Organizations. 1st ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2008. Print.

Eastburn, Ronald W. Making Sense Of Surprise Outcomes: Implications For Managing The Unexpected. 1st ed. Cleveland: Case Western Reserve University, 2009. Web. 10 Aug. 2014.

Fleming, Peter, and Stelios C. Zyglidopoulos. 'The Escalation Of Deception In Organizations'. Journal of Business Ethics 81.4 (2008): 837 -- 850. Print.

Lewis, Dawid. 'Non-Governmental Organizations, Business And The Management Of Ambiguity: Case Studies Of 'Fair Trade' From Nepal And Bangladesh'. Nonprofit Management and Leadership 9.2 (1998): 135-152. Print.

Richardson, Kurt A. 'Managing Complex Organizations:… [END OF PREVIEW]

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