Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment Term Paper

Pages: 4 (1141 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 1  ·  File: .docx  ·  Topic: Mythology - Religion

Scientific Revolution was a revolution in the way that human life was viewed. Instead of superstition and religion governing human life, the principles of rationalism were viewed to govern human existence. Methodical, empirical observations were used to answer the questions of life, such as why objects fell to the earth or the organization of the cosmos. Instead of deductively assuming certain principles were true, like the existence of God, nothing was assumed and instead scientific principles were derived inductively.

The Enlightenment

The Enlightenment was an intellectual movement spawned by the principles of the Scientific Revolution. Just as the Scientific Revolution applied the principles of rational behavior to the natural world, the Enlightenment applied the principles of the Scientific Revolution to human political and moral life. Instead of assuming that the 'divine right of kinds' was a pre-existing fact, Enlightenment writers questioned this assumption. All human beings were seen as rational, and thus possessed certain rights that would be later defined as inalienable, and could not be taken away by any outside entity, such as a monarch. Many Enlightenment writers were Deists, or took the view of God as a great 'watchmaker' -- God may have created the rules of the universe, but then stood back and took little moral interest in it; it was thus up to human beings to decide how to govern it.

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Q3. Two figures

Term Paper on Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment Assignment

Isaac Newton embodies the principles of the Scientific Revolution. Critical to Newton's approach was the idea that human beings should not deduce any causes other than what could be observed, which enabled him to deduce important truths about gravity, light, and differential calculus, as well as most famously identifying the force of gravity. Immanuel Kant, the famous formulator of the categorical imperative, similarly identified a rational philosophical approach to human life, to enable all human beings to life a moral and ethical existence. Rather than appealing to religion and myth, rationality was deemed to govern human doings.

Section 2: Questions on Galileo's Daughter

Q1. Describe the reception of Galileo's early work, including refining and building telescopes, viewing and drawing the moon, and discovering Jupiter's moons. Include political figures, scientists, and the Catholic Church. When why and how did the reception change?

Galileo did not begin his life as a despised figure by the Catholic Church. So long as his findings did not challenge and contradict existing doctrine, he was embraced and accepted. The Church was not necessarily against all forms of rationalism. However, the Church wanted to be the ultimate determiner of the truth in medieval life and when Galileo seemed to challenge these assertions, the Church was threatened and began to oppose him. Originally, Galileo had church approval for his challenges to the Copernican system but Church in-fighting and political wrangling between Rome, Protestantism, and Tuscany led them to condemn him.

Q2.Explain Galileo's view of the relationship between Holy Scripture and nature and his work as a scientist.

Galileo viewed Church writings to be inexorably connected to his writings as a scientist -- he viewed his writings as God-inspired and God-derived, rather than seeing them as contradicting science. In stark contrast to our own view of science, which tends to see science as utterly opposed to religion, Galileo viewed science as glorifying the creation of God through the exercise of rationalism.

Q3. In 1616 the congregation of the index published a proclamation that declared Copernican astronomy to be false and contrary… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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APA Style

Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment.  (2013, April 1).  Retrieved January 15, 2021, from

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"Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment."  1 April 2013.  Web.  15 January 2021. <>.

Chicago Style

"Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment."  April 1, 2013.  Accessed January 15, 2021.