Research Paper: Seaports Vulnerability to Submersible

Pages: 12 (3918 words)  ·  Style: Turabian  ·  Bibliography Sources: 10  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Military  ·  Buy This Paper


[. . .] For the defense from this terrorism under this Act, there should be nationally with the documents of vessels they also flying the flag of their nation, they also have registry of the foreign nation, they have the license of the vessels, for operating the vessels they have equipment which can automatically monitor the system of vessels and identify the system through that device (Posner 2003).

Terror Attack;

The terror may locate the data and information of any cruise or submarine to threat. The submarine may focus to the contribution of national level. It has more difficult, technical, and more expensive to attack a navy offices or at submarines. The terrorist prepares to attack on them for the national and continental threats. We shall also remember that the navy officers have been always maintained massive anti-submarine force. For the huge security for this purpose the navy offices stand for the full sized and extremely sophisticated nuclear submarines. The U.S. national authorities are furiously working on the sources to protect the submarines (Chalk, et al. 2005).

Walsh says, "Today primary targets for American submarines are terrorists according to him the submarines are perfect platform for the war on terror." Stealth and persistence are two attributes who effect to against the terrorism. For the security of submarine from the terrorist the U.S. navy organized two programs that are the nuclear submarine and the ballistic missiles submarine (Unknown, Transportation and Infrastructure, U.S. House of Representatives," 2004).

Security Management at Ports

For the foreign high interest vessels enter in the ports U.S. organized a Sea Marshal program and assign the coast guard to the place of the port. In a large U.S. port like New York, Los Angles and New Jersey required almost 96 hours for clearing the shipment and for this system the Sea Marshal are applied, when a shipment approves to enter the port, the Sea Marshal program is applied under the custody of coast guard.

The U.S. custom services also provide a proper security to the ports; before a cargo and shipment enter in the U.S. ports the custom becomes active to give the proper security to the crew, member of ship and things or goods of cargo, to save them from the threats of terrorism. In the U.S. there are four types of security in custom, International custom zone, Custom trade partnership against terrorism, Cargo related intelligence and the Non-intrusive inspector. They all are inspect the cargo and reduce the risk of weapons and mass materiel to enter the ports (Flynn 2002).

The Custom-trade partnership against terrorism works for the security of factories. An International custom zone establish for the security of largest seaports all around the world. Non-instructive inspector works for the technology at foreign 'mega ports'. The U.S. shares technology and information of cargo with the help of educated custom crew. The custom technology helps to low the risk of terrorism of greater security to the entry of ports (Jaffee and Russell 1997).

Submarine Attack;

Submarines are warships which design to operate the deepwater for the long time. The first submarine build over 500 years ago which covered a wooden boats with a treated leader. The submarine has verity of weapons and the most of the new submarine have powered of nuclear energy also. In contract the nuclear attack submarine USS Sea wolf is 107.6 meter (353ft) long, made for steel with the verity of weapon. It can travel around the world with 130 crews in the depth of 460m under water.

Two types of submarine basically used for the navy officers, attack submarine and the ballistic missiles submarine.

Attack submarine are basically design to the power of nuclear reaction system. Attack submarine also attacking the other ships targeting with small team of commandos, cruise missiles and lay mine. The attack submarines also operate the speed and stealth and can easily detect the enemies through direct communication. While the Ballistic missile submarine specially designed for the intercontinental nuclear missiles. These missiles lunched for the military strategies to deter the attack of enemy from starting a nuclear war (Force 1999).

Maritime crime;

The ports and maritime services which are related to the marine transport are basically related the some main factors include the management, planning, energy, environment, finance, training and business development.

The terrorism in maritime may be cause a container to smuggler a drug or may cause the weapons. Drug smuggler known the strategy and have experience how to threats the employ of cargo shipment and how to depredation the shipments. Terrorism on the other hand particularly using the same method of attack only once to, carry out terrorism operation.

The security of terrorism concerns with the terrorism and international damage. There are mainly three types of security which concern to the activities which conducted from the coast guard. The port securities conducted from the coast guard are required for the security of ports measurement. The result of this act is to reduce the risk of personal threat, vessels and public threat.

Secondly the vessels security which also called ISPS code vessel security, are based on two program the operations and measurement. The operation securities developed security plans which based on the security assessment and the implement of the ports measures security operation. The facility security can be defined by any location or a public or private property or any ownership and operation usually based on the facility security (Unknown, Transportation and Infrastructure, U.S. House of Representatives," 2004).

International Requirements

In the July, 2004, the international ports and vessels security introduced which code IPSP (International ship and port security code). It was an international security organization. U.S. also implement this program to the betterment of security of ports and vessel facilities. In December 2002 the U.S. enhance the international cargo facilities with the effort of coast guard which called the international ship and port security ISPS code and implement on 2004, July. Further the U.S. also has implemented a ship security plan which called Safety of Life At Sea (SOLAS).

The requirements include in this security of act the U.S. coast guard working for the anti-terrorism in the seaports and established an international program to improve the security of ports and cargo ships. They visit foreign officers and share to implement the code ISPS on their ports. The result of these official meeting, the vessels arrive at the ports with the security code ISPS who minimize the risk of pre-arrival vessels. Ships by provide the ship identity, the location of the ship their time and data and position of ships. This program helps in 2006, the international maritime organization has also implement the program of tracking to the security to identify the accurate distance of a ship. They also invent some devices for the identification of automatically system in which they can approach the vessels identity, type, position, speed and navigational status (Interagency Commission on Crime and Security in U.S. Seaports 2000).


The government implements the measure security on the areas. After 9/11 the government of U.S. considered the port security and for this purpose the agencies of United States started to implement in the new roles and new programs.

In 2002, the Bush president of United State had implemented a program under the Maritime Transportation Security Act (MTSA) 2002. The establishment of the Marine transport system in 1998, which focus on the security against the crime and the terrorism. In April 1999, the president of U.S. Bush implemented the study of crime at the seaport. In U.S. there are four policies are implement by the measure which are, "the Maritime Transport Security Act (MTSA), the security for the containers at ports, (CSI), the container security initiative, (C-TPAT) the custom, Trade Partnership Agent Terrorism and a port security grant program run by the department of Homeland Security" (Jaffee and Russell 1997) .

The MTSA, maritime transport security has based on the coast guard security and the security of ports facility and the vessels security also. This act also called and work for the new program of coast guard and the quick response team. The CIA, container security initiative has based on the custom and the border protection of United State. They are providing the advance screening and the inspection on the border and the ports. The C-TPTA, the Custom-Trade Partnership Agent terrorism are also work for the U.S. government on the ports and borders but they are related to the companies who supply goods to the other countries through ports. In this program the companies meet the requirements of the U.S. border and released their supply goods chain after inspection. So we can say this could be the sake of international trade security program (Flanagan 2003).

Government applied these programs to improve the security resources and activities. The main aimed for the improvement of security was to stop the terrorism on the maritime transport. They balance the labor between the Golf Coast and the West Coast ports. In the case of… [END OF PREVIEW]

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