Literature Review Chapter: Selection Process for Naval Aviators

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¶ … Williams (1999) discusses the overall selection process for naval aviators. As they have been using the ATSB, since 1992 to determine who has the proper mental and emotional attributes for the career field. However, some standardized tests can only predict certain elements, of who will be successful in this field. Given the fact that there are over 10 thousand applicants who are taking the test every year, means that there could be an over reliance on this exam. As a result, researchers decided to look at the three main scores that are carefully examined to include: the academic qualification ratings, the pilot flight aptitude rating and the pilot biographical inventory. This would help researchers to focus their efforts on if the combination of these different scores, as it would tell them who would be considered to be the best candidate (based upon comparing these scores with actual graduates). To determine this, the study would use liner regression analysis. The results were: that these three different scores provided an outstanding way of determining who would be successful in the program. This information is useful, because it can help to decide what specific factors are relevant (in judging who would make the best naval aviator).

The article that was written by Arendasy (2007), examines the judgment of military personnel, by looking at a host of different tests that were conducted through: the German Luftwaffe in 1999 and analyzing them. As these different tests looked at a host of factors that could have an impact upon the ability of aviators to effectively analyze the situation. These include: alertness, inductive thinking, visual / verbal short-term memory and reaction to various forms of stress. These different elements are important, because they are telling researchers the other factors that will have an effect on the kind of decisions that are made (by pilots in the most stressful combat situations). At which point, researchers would compare how the pilot performed in simulated situations through: observations of their activities on a combat flight simulator. The results were, that looking at issues (such as: alertness, inductive thinking, visual / verbal short-term memory and reaction to various forms of stress) provided an effective way of determining how these individuals would perform in actual combat situations. The information from this source is useful because, it can help to determine what kinds of mental attributes would have an impact upon aviator performance in combat.

The article that was written by Katz (2006), discusses how the Army developed a computer-based simulation test to: determine what kind of deficiencies existed in their current program and how they can be corrected. As they focused on several different elements to include: perceived speed / accuracy, cognitive ability, motivation, personality and prioritization. The results were that current testing efforts are helping to provide a basic foundation, in determine who would be a good candidate. However, there were several changes that were recommended to the battery these include: improving the cognitive portion of the tests, reducing the administration time and addressing any kind of logistical issues that could affect testing in the future. These factors are important, because they are telling administrators how they can specifically improve the testing process to find the best pilots.

As a result, this information can be used to help predict, who could excel at various career fields and it decides who has the best attributes (to cope with the various challenges they will face). When you put these two elements together, this means that source this is useful in providing a more accurate picture as to what individuals are most suited for the various MOS's.

In the report that was written by Damos (2006), it talks about how they were asked to create a new procedure for aviator training called: the Selection Instrument for in Flight Training. This looked at a number of different factors during the study that was being conducted to include: developing computer-based training models, create aviator selection procedures that reduce risks, create a tool that the Army can utilize to quickly decide if a particular candidate is most suited for a certain MOS and looking at how they can streamline the testing battery process. The results were that cognitive ability (the use of logic) was some of the most accurate variables, in determining who would excel at these programs. However, researchers also found that there were other factors that would have an impact, on deciding who the right candidates are. These include: psychological motor skills, personality, flight experience, the use of memory and motivation. These different factors are important, because they are showing how logic and cognitive ability will decide who will be successful in this career field. At the same time, the other secondary factors will play an equally important role. When you put these elements together, they are showing how the selection process is dependent upon determining the cognitive ability of the individual (to find the right candidates). As a result, this information can be used with some of the other sources that were discussed earlier, to corroborate what elements are most important when selecting potential aviators.

The article that was written by Corretta (2010), discusses the effectiveness of the Air Force's testing battery. Where, researchers would look at the total impact of their different parts of Air Force Qualifying Test, to determine who would make the best aviators. This was conducted by sampling 2,190 different candidates. The results were that these tests were accurate in determining 95% of those individuals who would excel in the flight program. The best predictor was those who scored well on the Academic Aptitude portion of the test. While, the Verbal Composite was shown to be the least effective at deciding who could perform well in this particular MOS. These different elements are important, because they are showing how; the different tests can identify those people who have the best attributes for working in this career field.

As a result, the information from this source is useful, because it helps to highlight how the current aptitude test is an accurate way of finding the best aviator candidates. Therefore, this can be used in conjunction with other sources to: determine the best predictors and what factors are most relevant when deciding on a particular MOS.

The piece of literature that was written by Cascio (1998), talks about how managers are able to determine who would be most suited to work in a particular occupation. This is accomplished by looking at the validity approach. Simply put, the validity approach is when you are looking at traditional factors such as: the personality of the individual, their ability to think logically and their overall amounts of training. The idea under this basic model is that managers can be able to assess, who is most qualified to work in a particular career field. However, after conducting a detailed analysis, researchers found that these factors can help to generally determine who would be able to have high probabilities of success. Yet, beyond these basic figures they also found that applying this standard formula to everyone can result in statistical inaccuracies. The most notable are: that managers are taking a one size fits all approach when conducting an assessment and they are not looking at outside variable that could play a role. These two elements are important, because they are showing how testing can work as a good way to indentify basic general trends. but, they must not be overly relied upon, as inaccuracies could occur when this kind of approach is taken. Instead, it is prudent to use the basic scores, to decide who will work well in a particular career field. While at the same time, they must pay close attention to specific factors that could have caused inconsistencies to occur. As a result, these different ideas are showing how all managers, must have some kind of flexibility when analyzing the results of various aptitude tests.

The information from this source is useful, because it can help to pinpoint, how specific cultural or external influences could have an impact upon the test scores of individuals. Therefore, this information can used in conjunction with the other sources, to decide the total impact that aptitude testing is having in finding the best naval aviators. As these different score must be taken into account, while specific cultural factors could have an effect upon the individual. Once this occurs, it means that the selection process can use test scores to determine intelligence and aptitude. Yet, there needs to be some way to take into account cultural influences about testing and the past experience of the individual with these exams. This will help to provide the greatest insights, as to what factors are most relevant when selecting the best naval aviator candidates.

The article that was written by Dattel (2010), talks about how many of the different standardized tests are often weighting the importance of the questions incorrectly. This is problematic, because when these kinds of situations begin… [END OF PREVIEW]

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