Self-Fulfilling Prophecies and Communication Term Paper

Pages: 8 (2623 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: ≈ 14  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Sociology

SAMPLE EXCERPT . . .
It is self-reinforcing because the boss's low expectations, in being fulfilled by his subordinates, trigger more of the same behavior on his part, which in turn triggers more of the same behavior on the part of subordinates. And on, unintentionally, the relationship spirals downward" (Barsoux 1998)

The employee's performance may meet the expectations of others in a Pygmalion syndrome, or may meet the low expectations created by a set-up-to-fail syndrome, thus, both syndromes, positive and negative, will likely have a spiraling, self-reinforcing effect (Gautschi 1998).

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Gloria B. Solomon conducted a study involving coaches and athletes. She found that coaches us a multitude of sources to asses the capabilities of athletes. The two primary categories of information used for the assessment were personal and performance cues. The study found that head coaches also use psychological sources in order to assess overall athletic ability, however, assistant coaches relied more on performance cues (Solomon 2002). This self-fulfilling prophecy "suggests that through a series of phases coaches directly impact player ability by communicating their expectations of ability" (Solomon 2002). Coaches' expectations through impression cues, personal, performance, psychological, and communicate this level of ability in both verbal and nonverbal ways, causing the athlete's behavior to conform to the original expectations, thus completing the self-fulfilling prophecy. Research suggests "that athletes are treated differently based on whether they are deemed high or low expectancy...athletes rated as high expectancy are offered more feedback and better quality feedback than their low expectancy teammates" (Solomon 2002).

Term Paper on Self-Fulfilling Prophecies and Communication Does Assignment

Race, gender, attractiveness, and age stereotyping are alike in that inferences about another's traits are based mainly from physical appearance. These appearance-related factors play a prominent role in forming initial impression due to the fact that the information conveyed is generally processed first by observers (Feingold 1998). Research has indicated "that women are evaluated more favorably than men and that physically attractive people are evaluated more favorably than those who are physically unattractive" (Feingold 1998). Research suggests that the sexes differ in many personality traits and produce corresponding variations between men and women in observable behaviors that people use to judge another, resulting in gender stereotyping.

Thus, gender stereotyping may be caused by observations of the behavioral differences between the sexes that result from the correlations between behavior and temperament" Feingold 1998). Research also suggests that differences in social behavior may stem from gender role, "those shared expectations about appropriate conduct that apply to individuals solely on the basis of their socially identified sex" (Feingold 1998). The theory suggest that gender role expectations predict the behaviors appropriate for male and females stereotypes evolve from self-fulfilling prophecies associated with particular roles (Feingold 1998).

The concept of a self-fulfilling prophecy suggests that people's beliefs can shape their choices and the outcomes of their actions, so that expectations tend to come true by virtue of the changed behaviors resulting directly from the expectations. Although researchers have mostly failed to find laboratory evidence of catharsis effects, it is plausible that media endorsement produces such self-fulfilling prophecies, which in turn might be sufficient to sustain popular belief in catharsis" (Bushman 1999).

A self-fulfilling prophecy can have both negative and positive effects, no matter the intention. Even if a prophet may think his intention is positive, say as an employer's extra attention to a low performance employee, the effect may likely be negative. However, a teacher who dotes on a certain student will see positive effects. Factors, based on individual and cultural beliefs determine how people respond to another. Moreover, forms of stereotyping such as gender, race, attractiveness, education and physical ability, all play a significant role in human relations and communications.

Works Cited

Barsoux, Jean-Louis. "The Set-Up-to-Fail Syndrome." Harvard Business Review. March http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=Harvard_Business_Review&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.hbsp.harvard.edu&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Jean%2DLouis+Barsoux+%2D+INSEAD+%28France%29&title=The+Set%2DUp%2Dto%2DFail+Syndrome++&date=03%2D01%2D1998&query=effects+of+Self%2Dfulfilling+prophecies+&maxdoc=30&idx=3.(accessed 10-30-2002).

Bushman, Brad J.; Baumeister, Roy F.; Stack, Angela D. "Catharsis, Aggression, and Persuasive Influence: Self-Fulfilling or Self-Defeating Prophecies?" Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Volume 76. No. 3 January 1999. http://www.apa.org/journals/psp/psp763367.html.(accessed 10-30-2002).

Feingold, Alan. "Gender Stereotyping for Sociability, Dominance, Character, and MentalHealth: A Meta-Analysis of Findings From the Bogus Stranger Paradigm." Genetic, Social & General Psychology Monographs. Volume 124. August 01, 1998. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=Genetic,_Social_~A~_General_Psychology_Monographs&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.heldref.org~S~mono.html&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=FEINGOLD%2C+ALAN&title=Gender+Stereotyping+for+Sociability%2C+Dominance%2C+Character%2C+and+MentalHealth%3A+A+Meta%2DAnalysis+of+Findings+From+the+Bogus+Stranger+Paradigm+%2E++&date=08%2D01%2D1998&query=effects+of+Self%2Dfulfilling+prophecies+&maxdoc=30&idx=24.

A accessed 10-30-2002).

Gautschi, Ted. "Expect the Worst?: Employee performance and self-fulfilling prophecies." Design News. June 1998. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1068/n12_v53/20910583/p1/article.jhtml?term=effects+of+self-fulfilling+prophecies+.(accessed 10-30-2002).

Hurley, Amy E. "The effects of self-esteem and source credibility on self-denying prophecies." The Journal of Psychology. Volume 131. November 01, 1997. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=The_Journal_of_Psychology&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.heldref.org~S~jrl.html&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Hurley%2C+Amy+E%2E&title=The+effects+of+self%2Desteem+and+source+credibility+on+self%2Ddenying+prophecies%2E++&date=11%2D01%2D1997&query=Self%2Dfulfilling+prophecies+and+communication&maxdoc=2&idx=0.(accessed 10-30-2002).

Kim, Angela; Yeh, Christine J. "Stereotypes of Asian-American Students." Cultural

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February 2002. http://ericcass.uncg.edu/virtuallib/diversity/1077.html.(accessed 10-30-2002).

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Snyder, Mark. "Interpersonal Processes: The Interplay of Cognitive, Motivational, and Behavioral Activities in Social Interaction." Annual Review of Psychology. Annual, 1999. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0961/1999_Annual/54442301/p1/article.jhtml?term=effects+of+self-fulfilling+prophecies+.(accessed 10-30-2002).

Solomon, Gloria B. "Sources of expectancy information among assistant coaches: The influence of performance and psychological cues." Journal of Sport Behavior. September 01, 2002. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=Journal_of_Sport_Behavior&puburl=0&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Solomon%2C+Gloria+B&title=Sources+of+expectancy+information+among+assistant+coaches%3A++The+influence+of+performance+and+psychological+cues++&date=09%2D01%2D2002&query=effects+of+Self%2Dfulfilling+prophecies+&maxdoc=30&idx=15.(accessed 10-30-2002).

Taylor, Charles R.; Stern, Barbara B. "Asian-Americans: television advertising and the model minority" stereotype." Journal of Advertising. Volume 26. June 22, 1997. [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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