Research Paper: Self Procrast the Effects

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[. . .] Further investigation into the potential factors that mediate and inform the relationship between self-esteem and procrastination is definitely called for more strongly than ever in light of these research findings, which confirm a relationship but do not help to explain it.

It should also be noted that the low self-esteem group has a much wider confidence interval than the other two groups, with a spread of more than twenty points between the lower and upper bounds of the mean at a 95% confidence level. The lower bound of the "low" self-esteem group's procrastination score is just below that of the upper bound of the "normal" self-esteem group's procrastination score, but the "low" group's upper bound is more than twenty points higher than it's lower bound at 77.14, demonstrating the extremity and variability though still strong upward trending of procrastination scores within this group. The normal group, in contrast, has a confidence interval at 95% confidence spread out by only six points -- from 50.399 to 56.652 -- while the "high" self-esteem group has a similar though very slightly larger interval from 44.844 to 51.263. The lower bound of the "normal" self-esteem group's mean score on the procrastination instrument is just below the upper bound for the "high" self-esteem group, just as the "low" group's mean procrastination confidence interval overlaps that of the "normal" group. wowever the much narrower confidence interval in the "high" self-esteem group -- and in the "normal" group -- is more indicative of a lack of extreme difference (though the difference Is still statistically significant), as opposed to the large confidence interval of the "low" self-esteem group that has an upper-bound twenty points higher than that of the "normal" group. This wide spread is more indicative of the extremity of difference in procrastination levels for those individuals with low self-esteem in this research population, and the extremity of this correlation is perhaps the most significant finding in this study.

Conclusions

No firm conclusions can be reached from the findings in this research regarding the nature or the direction of the relationship that exists between procrastination and self-esteem. That such a correlation exists can be resoundingly affirmed, however, as this research shows a strong correlation between self-esteem and procrastination. The research also shows that the effects of this correlation, while significant across the spectrum of self-esteem and levels and degrees/frequencies of procrastination behaviors, is most strongly evidence in those with lower self-esteem and higher degrees/frequencies of procrastination. It is possible that those who procrastinate more are less successful and thus have lower levels of self-esteem, and it is possible that those with lower self-esteem use procrastinating behaviors as a means of protecting themselves through self-handicapping, as has been hypothesized. This research did not examine root causes or other aspects of this relationship, and thus a determination as to the mechanism of influence in this relationship is not yet possible.

These findings call the findings of some previous research into question; some studies have found a direct correlation between self-esteem and procrastination, as discussed above. Other research supports the findings of this data set and analysis, however, and all research in the area supports the existence of a relationship. The time is ripe for a carefully designed study to examine other factors of influence and to begin modeling a more complete explanatory mechanism.

References

Beck, B.L., Koons, S.R., & Milgrim, D.L. (2000). Correlates and consequences of behavioral procrastination: The effects of academic procrastination, self-consciousness, self-esteem and self-handicapping. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality.

Beshlideh, H., Yousefi, N. & Haghighi, J. (2012). An investigation of psychometric properties of Rosenberg self-esteem scale in students of Shahid Chamran University in Ahwaz. Journal of Educational Psychology 9(15): 41-66.

Deniz, M. (2011). An Investigation of Decision Making Styles and the Five-Factor Personality Traits with Respect to Attachment Styles. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 11(1), 105-113.

Ferrari, J.R. (2000). Procrastination and attention: Factor analysis of attention deficit, boredomness, intelligence, self-esteem, and task delay frequencies. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality.

Lupien, S.P., Seery, M.D., & Almonte, J.L. (2010). Discrepant and congruent high self-esteem: Behavioral self-handicapping as a preemptive defensive strategy. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46(6), 1105-1108.

Mullen, S.P., Gothe, N.P., & McAuley, E. (2012). Evaluation of the factor structure of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale in older adults. Personality and individual differences.

Powers, T.A., Koestner, R., Zuroff, D.C., Milyavskaya, M., & Gorin, A.A. (2011). The effects of self-criticism and self-oriented perfectionism on goal pursuit. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37(7), 964-975.

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