Sexology as Defined by Wikipedia, "Sexology Deals Term Paper

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As defined by Wikipedia, "sexology deals with the systematic study of human sexuality. It encompasses all aspects of sexuality, including attempting to characterize normal sexuality and its variants. The modern sexology includes a multidisciplinary field which uses the techniques of fields including biology, medicine, psychology, statistics, epidemiology, pedagogies, sociology, anthropology, and sometimes criminology to bear on its subject."

In the context of the study, there emerged two serious theories that caught the attention of the many readers, including well-known writers, scholars, and other philosophers who threw their personal critics on each of the theories. These are "The General System Theory" and the "Universal Integralism" -- these are not just mere theories, but meta-theories.

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The General Systems Theory was introduced by Karl Ludwig von Bertalanffy in the 1940's. Bertalanffy was a Hungarian by root and an Austrian-born biologist, who also entered the field of study of the structure of complex systems such as the communication process, control mechanism, and feedback principles. Although he thought of the idea of General System Theory back in 1936, he hesitated to seriously deal with it and expose it until 1948, when the environment was more receptive to the idea. Bertalanffy's exposures to various studies on education, history, philosophy, psychiatry, psychology, and sociology have brought him into the spotlight of the intellectual history. His General Systems Theory was believed to be the foundation of the many system theories developed by him and by other recognized icons in the interdisciplinary field of science. It also served as a bridge between the autonomous area of study and the area of system science itself.

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General System Theory, in this frame of reference, is a system that is "composed of regularly interacting or interrelating groups of activities" (Wikipedia). For Bertalanffy, a system is defined as "elements in standing relationship." The general aspects of the general system theory share certain characteristics that allow them to function as systems. Included are the concepts of organization, wholeness, directiveness, teleology, and differentiation that are unknown to conventional physics. Regardless of their type or level of organization, the characteristics common to all systems must be identified and documented. However, they are found anywhere in the biological, behavioral and social sciences. This only shows that they are essential for dealing with living organisms or social groups, yet they posed as a general organization theory problem. There are various "systems" that are not understandable by investigation of their respective parts in isolation such as problems that exist within organizations, dynamic interactions manifest in difference of behavior, phenomena not resolvable into local events, etc. To solve these dilemmas, the General System Theory - a general science of "wholeness" can be used in putting the exact definitions for such concepts to quantitative analysis. This applies to any system of a certain type, irrespective if the particular properties of the system and of the elements involved.

According to Bertalanffy, "real systems are open to, and interact with, their environments, and that they can acquire qualitatively new properties through emergence, resulting in continual evolution." Because of this concept, he opposed other theories, particularly reductionism. Bertalanffy provided great emphasis on the meaning of life, on improving the human condition, on the differences between organism and purely physico-chemical processes. He further emphasized that rather than reducing an entity such as the human body, to the properties of its parts which are the organs or cells, a focus should be made on the arrangement of and relations between the parts which connect them into a whole. The system is determined by this particular organization, as independent of the concrete substance of the elements such as particles, cells, transistors, people, etc. These concepts are valid in the social and behavioral sciences as they bring about the different disciplines such as physics, biology, technology, sociology, etc.

Though the idea of the General System Theory has been credited to Von Bertalanffy, the system theories were not new to many. In fact, there were other theorists who claimed that the idea of the basic elements where in their minds as far back as the 1920's. This means that the General Systems Theory is already perceptible during that time.

Another theory which earned both praise and criticism was that of Kenneth Earl "Ken" Wilber Jr., a genius American author of various books in psychology, philosophy, mysticism, ecology, and spiritual evolution, who has been considered as a controversial philosopher because of his theory of Universal Integralism on consciousness. He even founded the Integral Institute in 1998, where the comprehensive understanding of humans and the universe with combining inter alia, scientific and spiritual insights were taught.

Wilber's first concept states that the mystical experience is indescribable and cannot be easily put into words. He further said that "one has to have the experience to see what it's like." Here, Wilber signified that the mystical experience does exist and is valid. It can even be communicated or transmitted, can be shown but not said, like taking up spiritual practice under the guidance of a spiritual master or teacher.

Just like other theories, the theory of Universal Integralism has received various cynical reviews for allegedly failing to distinguish the school of philosophy from the spiritual tradition based on the teachings on meditations and the nature of God. They also claimed that the theory lacks the essence concerning with the self-realization by which one understands the ultimate nature of reality. It even became controversial as another great philosopher, Christian de Quincey, provided an opposing comment on it. In his statement made in 2002 in the Promise of Integralism: A Critical Appreciation of Ken Wilber's Integral Psychology in the Journal of Consciousness Studies, de Quincey considered Wilber's integral theory as an intellectual edifice that denigrates emotion. Another writer, William Irwin Thompson, has harshly criticized Wilber's approach on integral theory as categorizations of textbook. Thompson emphasized that Wilber has been objectifying, where he excessively assigned meaning to things, people, places, activities, and even to themselves, which became part of cultural constructions, which in turn, inform and guide behavior. He also stressed that Wilber heavily relied on social theories, political movements, and moral philosophies primarily based on the experiences of men, which is commonly known as masculinism.

Wilber has integrated contemporary spiritual practice with everyday psychological insights. He initially formulated a General Unified Theory of consciousness by correlating East-West psychological, philosophical, and spiritual cognitive maps. Wilber calls his interest in mapping as the "neo-perennial philosophy," an integration of some of the view of mystical realization. Although Wilber adopted the mysticism, he opposed to philosophical materialism, anti-evolutionary view of history as a regression from past ages, and some ideas of perrenialism.

In his succeeding writings (the Atman Project, Up From Eden, a Sociable God, and Eye to Eye), he uncovered and envisioned an evolutionary consciousness as a hierarchy of holon, where a holon is both part and a whole, as the basic building blocks of existence. For Wilber, everything is a holon. He assimilated the trajectory of consciousness evolution for the human species as a global holism or universal integralism.

Wilber has also put together evolution and spirit in his model of evolution reaching beyond rational creatures all the way to spirit. He integrated it with pre-modern spiritual wisdom to produce a truly postmodern spectrum of consciousness.

As written in the essay of de Quincey, Wilber's concept of evolution and spirit was also depicted in his Four Quadrants model: each quadrant is co-evolving, from the lowest, simplest forms to the highest, or deepest, most complex realities. For Wilber, he "sought an integral philosophy and the world's great wisdom traditions, not on the level of details - that is finitely impossible; but on the level of orienting generalizations a way to suggest that the world really is one, undivided, whole, and related to itself in every way." This… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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