Term Paper: Sexual Transmitted Disease

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Sexually Transmitted Disease

Sexual Transmitted Disease

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) refers to illnesses or infections that are spread through human sexual behaviors and are also known as venereal disease or sexually transmitted infections. These diseases usually occur through a variety of ways including anal sex, vaginal intercourse and oral sex with the most common means being through sexual intercourse with an infected person.

There are various types of sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea, syphilis, genital herpes, Chlamydia, Trichomoniasis, and HIV / AIDS. However, the main causes of sexually transmitted diseases are viruses, parasites, and bacteria. While these diseases affect both men and women, they are usually severe in women than men.

Though most of these diseases are treatable, some of them still lack effective cures like Hepatitis B and C, and HIV / AIDS. In the past few years, STDs have become among the most common infectious illnesses and one of the major causes of death in America. Consequently, it is important to explore the various types of these diseases, their causes, spread of the illnesses, their treatment, and preventive measures.

Spread of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Sexually transmitted diseases spread rapidly because they affect both men and women of all ages regardless of their background, social status, and race. These diseases have continued to increase in the recent past because people are increasingly becoming sexually active at a younger age, ignore the use of preventive methods, and have multiple sexual partners. Furthermore, the spread of the disease is also associated with the fact that infected people can transmit the diseases without having any symptoms (Stoppler & Davis, n.d.). On the other hand, sexually transmitted diseases are sometimes passed from infected mothers to their children before, during, and straight away after birth.

Throughout the research paper, I will use analyses conducted by various medical agencies and health professionals to explore these diseases in details. The paper will identify the reasons for the increased spread of these diseases and the preventive measures to help curb this growing problem.

Types of STDs

As previously mentioned, there are various types of sexually transmitted diseases with divergent cause, symptoms, treatment, and preventive measures. They include

Gonorrhea

This is a bacterial infection that is transmitted by sexual contact through an organism known as Neisseria Gonorrheae. As one of the oldest known STDs, the symptoms of gonorrhea include frequent urination, burning, itching, swelling of genitals, and a yellowish vaginal discharge (Stoppler & Shiel, n.d.). For men it will show white, yellow or green discharge from the pennies, testicles inflammation, anal discharge and urethral itch (Sexually Transmitted Diseases Guide, 2005).

While the disease can result in serious pelvic infection if untreated, its treatment involves a single injection of penicillin. Consequently, the disease is easy to stop because its bacterium only survives in certain conditions.

Chlamydia

It is a bacterium that results in a Sexually Transmitted Disease in a similar manner like gonorrhea especially in the way it spreads and the symptoms it produces. Chlamydia is mostly found in the urethra and cervix and can survive in the rectum and throat just like gonorrhea. Since many infected men and women normally lack the symptoms of this infection, they spread the disease unknowingly. However, some of the most common symptoms of the disease include uterine cervix infection and destruction of the Fallopian tubes. The treatment of this disease involves the use of antibiotics like doxycycline and azithromycin while prevention is through the use of a condom or protective barrier.

HIV / AIDS

HIV / AIDS is purported to began in 1981 when there was an out break of a rare cancer in men which was among the gays in the new York and California .The gay cancer was latter identified then named as Kaposi sarcoma, an infection diseases which latter became the phase of HIV / AIDS (Global Health Council, 2011).

From the biological perspective, HIV / AIDS can lead to increased rate of infection among the females, from the biological point-of-view an immature female is genitals tract is likely to tear up during the sexual activity hence increasing the chances of and risks of infection .The presence of unattended sexually transmitted infections enhances the chances if infection since in women there are no symptoms of the infections due to lack of knowledge amongst the young women their will be high chances of infection of HIV / AIDS (UNICEF 2004).

Since HIV / AIDS is a blood borne virus i.e. It can spread when the blood or the body fluids of an infected person comes to contact with blood, broken skin, or the mucus membrane of an infected person. The virus destroys certain cells called CD4+ cells which are found in the immune system hence the infection of HIV / AIDS results into the interference with the immunity system, hence a person cannot fight infections germs and diseases.

The HIV virus attacks and destroys the blood cells known as the CD4+ T cells which are central in the body's fight against diseases. The HIV can infect the cells and multiply before the immune system has responded. After this stage the body immune system will respond even if one may not physically see that. Here the body form antibodies against HIV and undergoes seroconversion and a person goes from HIV negative to HIV positive. This status may last for up to 10 years before one starts to see the opportunistic diseases infecting the body due to the extremely low immune system and it is at this stage that one is said to have AIDS. A stage where there are physically prominent and evident symptoms of diseases like TB, diarrhea, fever and all those mentioned above, this is when one can be said to have AIDS (CDC, 2007).

The upcoming of the antiretroviral drugs has developed to some impact on the biological effect of the drug; they can lead to intoxication of body cells and tissues in the human body. HIV / AIDS according to the research it has been indicated that it causes harm in the nerve cells in the brain (JNCI 2011).

In the previous years millions have died from the infection of HIV / AIDS which causes deliberate illness and premature death in the peak years of their productivity in their lifespan. HIV / AIDS has complex challenges to efforts to fight poverty, improve health, and promote development. The social implication of HIV / AIDS has a great effect on the affected families and even the community, HIV / AIDS brings about the diminishing returns to the families of the infected person and even dissolution of households. The most affected individuals are in the age gap of 25-50. This is the age gap where the labor supply is high, but because of the infection of the deadly disease the persons lack the ability to support their families and even to work in order to contribute in the economic development. At the same moment the treatment and health care cost tends to be so high hence leading to the consumption of the household income. The two combined effects greatly lead to reduced income with high cost of expenditure hence impoverishment of households and individuals. This leads to increased dependency rate.

The increased infection of HIV / AIDS has lead to staining in the community resources and overburdening the public and social support systems with the increased rate of infection the number of facilities and personnel that will be required in order to attend to the infected patients will increase. Hospitals, social services, health care workers will be inefficient hence the production of poor services in the various sectors (Global health council, 2011).

There has been tremendous changes in households and demographically and decrease in school attendance, the life expectancy of an adult has reduced because of increased death rate and also increased mortality rate. According to UNICEF (2004), its is stated the capacity of schooling services to decrease in the areas of high rate of HIV / AIDS infection since then labor providers are limited in numbers since most of them are infected with HIV / AIDS. This even affects the quality of education which has been jeopardized with HIV / AIDS.

Genital Herpes

The second disease that is occasioned by viruses and can be considered an STD is the genital herpes. It is caused by herpes simplex viruses type 1 (HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2). The complications that come with it are usually mild and can be quite pronounced in some occasions. The complications involve appearance of a blister or two around the genitals or the rectum which break into ulcers and dry out after two to four weeks. Another outbreak can appear after weeks or months. There may also occur a bout of flu, fever and swollen glands. For pregnant mothers, genital herpes pose a potential fatal infection on babies (CDC, 2010).

There are two types of genital Herpes, Type 1 that is characterized by sore on or near the mouth and Type 2 which normally causes… [END OF PREVIEW]

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