Term Paper: Smart Grid

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Wind Farm Grids

Wind Farm Valuation

Value a new Wind Farm project

Hurricane or tornado survivors or anyone who has seen pictures of the aftermath of these storms will realize there is enormous energy potential in wind power. The problem is taming this energy so that it is useful without being destructive.

Wind energy is derived from the sun. Because the sun's energy is not absorbed uniformly, some regions of Earth's atmosphere are warmer than others. The warmer air expands and rises; the cooler air contracts and settles. The expanded air is at a lower pressure than the cooler air. The difference in pressure causes a wind to blow. There is a further bonus in wind energy, not attributable to the sun but to whatever caused Earth to rotate in the first place. Earth, in its furious spin, drags some of the air close to it around, causing prevailing winds to blow from west to east (Snyder, 2010).

Humans have made use of this form of energy for millennia. For centuries, ships sailed under wind power until devices were invented which converted wood, coal, or other fossil fuels into the energy necessary to drive a ship (Pew Center, 2010).

As early as the 20th century B.C., the Babylonian Emperor Hammurabi planned to use windmills (devices with sails) for capturing the wind's energy and pumping water for irrigation. Notice that despite its end use, we have called the device a windmill. Many centuries later, it was principally used to grind grain between two millstones -- therefore the name windmill, in spite of its more universal usefulness. What it actually does, any motionless device with sails to utilize the wind's energy, is known as a windmill. Even though it is occasionally called a wind machine or a wind turbine (Snyder, 2010).

The Dutch, evidently, do not dominate the windmill industry. Almost every country in the world has during some point in their history used the wind as a resource of power. The Dutch initiated windmills in the United States as soon as they settled here (Wind-Farm Placement, 2009). The most admired American model was the light pinwheel type put up on an elevated tower and can even now be observed on some farms. Millions were set up into the country to siphon water and were later on used to produce electricity. As soon as rural electrification was launched, windmill retailing and utilization declined sharply (Snyder, 2010).

Research and Development

The wonder is that with a proven source of nonpolluting energy and with the technical skills available in the United States, more effort had not been made to replace fossil fuels with wind machines sooner. Even today when, as we shall see, these devices have been improved to the extent that they are as reliable and as economical to operate as conventional power sources, there is no great movement to replace an appreciable amount of coal, oil, and natural gas use with wind power. The country seems to be awash in cheap electricity generated by standard devices using fossil fuels whose capital investment has largely been amortized. Hence there is no great inclination at this time to spend for new facilities (Schleede, 2003). That is not to say that wind power has been totally neglected. Research on wind machines improvement was stimulated by OPEC's tripling the price of oil in the early 1970s. The first serious reaction to these price augments happened in Denmark, not in the United States. There are a variety of reasons for this. The Danish financial system was more susceptible to the disturbances caused by OPEC's action. Additionally, there was the United States' general approach to advances in technology (Gardner, 2009).

Wind power farms were rapidly set up in California. The inventive wind turbines were technical failures. For the reason that the original designs tried to mimic the propellers of aircraft there was no recognized industry for delivering these wind machines, thus not one of the machines produced was either dependable or cheap. After some time the Danish manufacturers came to salvage. Approximately ten thousand wind machines were set up as a changeover until a wind turbine manufacturing industry might be established in the United States (Snyder, 2010).

Developments on these first primordial efforts have resulted in an energy source that obviously has a prospect to some extent replace fossil fuels. Modern wind turbines can react to a wide variety of wind velocities, from 10 to 70 miles per hour, compared to a much less wider range of the first designs (Texas State Energy Conservation Office, 2012). The down times for these apparatus, initially from 40-45%, have been condensed to approximately 3% and 4%. This is a significant development because the periodic delivery of power by a wind machine is among its main disadvantages and down times for repairs make worse this problem (Texas State Energy Conservation Office, 2012).

Resources have been improved. Anticipated useful lifetimes of these equipments have been improved from three to 25-35 years. The turbines can now be employed to power generators which generate 60 cycle alternating current in output, as opposed to needing additional equipment to distribute this most widespread type of current (Pew Center, 2010).

Financial Considerations

Expenses of wind- delivered electrical energy are now comparable to costs of generation from fossil fuel. In the 80's the expenses were 12 cents per kilowatt hour. The present price is approximately 6 cents per kilowatt hour. This cost comprises not only the functioning and preservation costs but also the attention on the capital asset, the lease of the land, indemnity costs, and all other operating cost of managing a business. Additional improvements are just around the corner. It is probable that costs will be additionally decreased to 2.5 cents per kilowatt hour, by means of taller towers to generate the winds at elevated sections where they are stronger and drive more frequently. Improvements in the sails and turbines will in addition enhance this decrease in costs.

In excess of 3% of California's electrical requirement is now fulfilled by wind turbines. A lot of states even have a larger amount of wind potential than California. Researchers in the state of Washington calculate that North and South Dakota, by means of wind power, may possibly provide 80% of the United States electricity demand (Schleede, 2003). This is accurate even if one were to leave out as possible sites all of the environmentally susceptible and urban lands, half of the forest areas, and a quarter of the agricultural areas. These two states are not the just the sole feasible sources of a sufficient wind delivery setup. The United States has sufficient wind potential to make available more than a few times the amount of electricity that is at this time used. It is doubtful that this type of power will not be fully accomplished with the availability of appropriate land sites (Texas State Energy Conservation Office, 2012). It is definitely not irrational to expect that wind turbines stand equipped to make available no less than 45-55% of the United States electrical requirements when the anticipated fossil fuel predicament finally happens. Researchers are hopeful about the rest of the world's prospects for wind farms (Gardner, 2009).

Feasibility Report

The wind is a renewable, does not pollute, and comparatively low-priced source of power. Additionally wind generators are modular and can be setup rapidly and reasonably as demand increases. Fossil fuel generators are strenuous resources and need several years to construct.

There are a number of negatives to wind power, neither of those seem impossible to rise above. As wind machine use rises there will predictably be disagreements about land use. Wind power creation needs a large area of space. As a result of the turbulence produced by the rotating blades, the machines have to be positioned between 180-230 meters away from each other. A competent wind farm ought to have no less than 200 of these machines. Wind turbines take up under 8% of the area of the wind farm. The remaining space can be utilized for agricultural farming, ranching, or any other appropriate use even as the power is being produced (Pew Center, 2010). The real estate history in central in California shows that land values may even rise significantly when wind farms start operating. There are a number of remote areas appropriate for wind turbine use where the significance of the power generated could be in excess of 100 times the present market value of the property. On the other hand there will be grievances about noise and visual disfigurement. Denmark has dealt with these problems by charting out standards (Texas State Energy Conservation Office, 2012).

At the moment, in nearly all turbines a generator is employed to take the electrical generator up to an insignificant speed of 1600 revolutions per minute (RPM). To facilitate nonstop power accessibility hybrid systems have been suggested. These join wind power with petrol of diesel generators (Wind-Farm Placement, 2009). In wind -- diesel hybrid setups, wind turbines are joined to the diesel… [END OF PREVIEW]

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