Research Paper: Social, Cultural, and Political Influence

Pages: 13 (4282 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 12  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: Healthcare  ·  Buy This Paper


[. . .] S. (Crinson, 2009).

An alternate factor in the health care access issue is recognized in instances of urban poor. Information from urban slums shows that newborn and under-five death rates for the poorest forty percent of the urban populace are as high as the remote ranges (Crinson, 2009). Urban inhabitants are extremely powerless to macroeconomic stuns that undermine their earning limit and expedite substitution towards cheaper and less nutritious foods. Individuals in urban slums are especially influenced because of poor sanitation, absence of appropriate housing, fit sanitation, and legitimate education (Wilkerson, 2008). Financially, they lack reserve funds, extensive sustenance stocks that they can draw down over the long haul. Urban slums are also home to a wide display of irresistible illnesses like HIV / AIDS, hepatitis, tuberculosis, dengue fever, cholera, pneumonia, and malaria. These diseases are easily spread in a highly concentrated populace where water and sanitation administrations are non-existent.

Poor housing conditions, subjected to excessive cold or heat, soil, disease air and water contamination, as well as commercial and industrial occupational health risks, compound the recent high ecological health risks for the urban poor (Henderson, 2007). Absence of social support frameworks, safety nets like health insurance and lack of property tenure and rights make further contributions to health vulnerability of populations in urban areas. Although healthcare amenities are overwhelmingly found in urban zones, the socioeconomic obstacles hinder access for the urban poor. These socioeconomic restraints incorporate the cost of health care, cultural elements like the absence of culturally proper administrations, language/ethnic obstructions, and prejudices from suppliers. There is likewise noteworthy absence of health training in slums. All these elements expedite ineptitude to recognize manifestations and look for suitable care from poor people's part.

The third access challenge arises from the gender-identified difference. The strength of social order is reflected from the steadiness of its female populace. That is totally neglected in a large portion of the developing nations, mostly found in Africa. Gender distance makes women defenseless to different illnesses and related mortality and mobility. From socio-cultural and financial points-of-view, women in U.S. end up in subordinate positions to men (Albrecht, Fitzpatrick & Scrimshaw, 2013).

Women prohibited from decision-making have constrained access to and control over assets. They are limited in their portability and are frequently under risk of brutality from male relatives. Male children are recognized to have religious, social, and economic utility; girls are frequently felt to be sources of wealth due to the dowry framework. In India, women are restricted to seek early care to sickness, whatever the socioeconomic status of the family could be. This sexual orientation difference in health care access is evident when the ladies are unemployed, illiterate widowed or reliant on others. The consolidation of observed ill health and absence of support frameworks contributes to a poor life quality (Spector & Spector, 2009).

Effect on Health Outcome Due to Inequalities

Health principles of a nation reflect the economic, social, political, and ethical well being of its conventional citizens. Social and economic development of a social order and the nation are straight depending on the health of its constituents. Healthy conditions of living and access to quality medical services for all people are fundamental human rights, as well as crucial essentials for economic and social improvement. Any disparity in social, practical, or political settings between groups of a population in a society affects key health indicators of the society. The touchiest pointers of well-being of the social order are maternal and infant death rates (MMR and IMR). IMR is still fundamentally high in the U.S. Around 2.2 million children die each year. Indeed, the 2010 National Health Policy target to reduce Infant Mortality Rate to less than sixty for every one thousand live births has not been achieved. The National Health Policy had likewise set a target for 2000 to decrease Maternal Mortality Rate to less than 200 for every 100,000 live births (DeNisco & Barker, 2013). Then again, 407 mothers die because of pregnancy-identified reasons, for each 100,000 live births even today. Indeed, according to the NFHS studies in the most recent decade Maternal Mortality Rate has expanded from 424 maternal deaths for every 100,000 live births to 540 maternal deaths for every 100,000 live births (Henderson, 2007). Besides these manageable deaths, America has seen a resurgence and persistence of numerous infectious diseases.

An estimated 0.5 million individuals kick the bucket from tuberculosis each year in America, and this number has barely updated in the last five decades (Albrecht, Fitzpatrick & Scrimshaw, 2013). Other transmittable infections like Encephalitis, Malaria, Kala Azar, Dengue, and Leptospirosis are a long way from being eradicated. The amount of reported instances of Malaria has stayed at an elevated amount of around two million cases yearly since the mid eighties. The flare-up of Dengue in America in 1996-97 saw 16,517 cases and took 345 lives (Albrecht, Fitzpatrick & Scrimshaw, 2013). Basic treatable infections like diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, and asthma additionally take their toll because of the frail public health framework and absence of awareness. Around six hundred thousand children die every year from a normal sickness like diarrhea. While diarrhea it could be prevented by the global provision of safe drinking water and clean conditions, these deaths might be avoided by auspicious administering of Oral Re-hydration Solution (ORS), which is instantly managed in just 27% of cases. Cancer cases claim at least 0.3 million lives for every year, and tobacco-related cancers are contributing 50% of the overall burden of cancer, which implies that such deaths could be prevented by tobacco control measures (Armstrong, 2011).

These health outcome pointers reflect an exceptionally disappointing condition of public health services. The sad truth is these pointers have neglected to enhance besides numerous governments owned systems, mushrooming of private sector and noticeable expansions in the GDP. This underscores the significance of cultural, political, and social disparity as the hindrance.

Economic Inequality and Private Healthcare

The development of private medical services segment has always been seen as a boon, but it adds to perpetually expanding cultural dichotomy. The predominance of the private sector does not only deny access to poorer segments of the social order. It further skews the equalization towards urban-predisposition, tertiary level health administrations with benefit overriding quality and rationality of care given. The expanding cost of health care that is paid directly from individual pockets is making health care unreasonably expensive for a developing number of individuals. The number of individuals who could not access health care due to the absence of money has bounced up between 1986 and 199527 (Spector & Spector, 2009).

The extent of individuals unable to afford the cost of primary health care has multiplied recently. One in three individuals requiring hospitalization and paying from their pocket is constrained to borrow cash or sell assets to offset hospital bills. At least ten million Americans are pushed underneath the poverty line each year in light of the impact of out-of-pocket spending on medical services. Without a successful regulatory authority over the private care industry, the nature of quality care is poised to continue deteriorating. Effective medicinal lobbies counteract government from detailing viable legislation or upholding the existing ones. A recent report by the World Bank affirms the realities that doctors over-recommend drugs propose unnecessary examinations, medicine, and neglect to give fitting data for patients even in a private health care segment (Armstrong, 2011).

The same report likewise states the connection between quality and value that exists in the private healthcare framework. The administrations offered at an extremely high cost are beyond quality but are affordable for a normal man. They underscore the role that social, cultural, and economic distances play in health care service delivery.

Population Needs for Care


The aging of the populace will have a monumental effect on the growth of health care spending. Populace aging will essentially affect the federal budget in the near future. When a person turns sixty-five, his or her total cost to the health care framework does not suddenly rise. The expense of the central government, nonetheless, will expand because Medicare will turn into the prime insurer. Congressional Budget Office analysis shows that, throughout the next 25 years, populace aging will be answerable for fifty-two percent of the growth in spending on key government health programs (Crinson, 2009). Normally, the enrollment of Medicare is anticipated to bounce up by 1.6 million yearly, accelerating to up to 81 million beneficiaries by 2030. The rate of individual's age 65 or more advanced in years, in respect to those of working age will rise from approximately 22% in 2012 to just about 30% in 2022 (Henderson, 2007).

Caring for the end of life patients require unmanageable services like physician care, inpatient hospital stays, home care, skilled nursing facility care and outpatient care. In the near future, spending on Medicare per beneficiary is projected to increase more significantly than… [END OF PREVIEW]

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