White Paper: Social Equity Is a Key

Pages: 20 (5893 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 20  ·  Level: Doctorate  ·  Topic: Leadership  ·  Buy This Paper

SAMPLE EXCERPT:

[. . .] In addition, public administration has the duty of burdening the responsibility of creating and maintaining a commonwealth. However, in practice the relationship between citizenry and administrators is complex, making matters of government operation, citizen engagement, and design in administration complex (Candler & Dumont, 2010). This is the result of a global phenomenon, which has led to the creation of the concept of direct citizenry engagement. The need for local responsibility is a challenge for the administrator to create citizenry engagement for some administrative functions, like security. However, these remains a challenge for leaders as national integrated systems of administration are in the way of future governance.

2.2 Analysis of Theories of the Conference

2.2.1 public administration Leadership

Leadership in public administration entails the "exercise of authority, formally or informally, in coordinating and directing the work of others. Public administration is more than being a public employee, for it is stewardship in all sectors and dimensions. A public administrator that is a steward is a leader that is aware they are entrusted with valuable resources, especially of the people they are leading. They nurture these resources for investment and growth to achieve development (Norma, 2009). Public administration is founded on existing theories and models, which are put into practice. Therefore, a public administrator that is a leader will put into practice the theory of stewardship for the good of the whole society.

This basic concept exists because public administration is identified as a political institution, which is a means to reach the collective end by exerting formative influence. To achieve this, the public administrator leaders, identifies, creates, and refines collective purposes. They are also actively involved in shaping the preferences of citizens and restructuring the diverse array of relationships among citizen's private and public realms (Norma, 2009). However, the relationship between the public administrator and the citizen continually evolves influencing the leadership approach.

The public administrator is called upon to uphold the characteristics of an ethical leader by creating accountability and trust in the organization culture. Leadership calls for the application of personal ethics and the need for upholding ethical standards in today's competitive world. These leaders must be aware of the effects this leadership approach has on the long-term success of the organization and society (Kimbrough, 2009). The administrator's ethical behavior impact the effectiveness of leadership in the organization. This is because the administrator is very important and has a powerful influence over the culture of the organization, and consequently the building of trust and credibility. This is because effective leadership also referred to, as ethical leadership by Cooper, is the moral compass by which directs the organization and its staff. Administrative ethics is pre-disposition to act in certain ways, which have the meaning of character. An Ethical climate and accountability are linked because, "ethics is primarily concerned with responsibility -- personal and organizational -- for making decisions according to an accepted (or defensible) moral code for distinguishing right from wrong. Accountability, on the other hand, involves the responsibility to answer to a higher authority" (Laratta, 2011). The challenge to administration is seen in achieving true leadership, or the ability to choose without influence of external social forces, while maintaining awareness of inherent motivations.

The public administrator is also called to upholding responsibility in their duties and capacities as leaders. The duty of the administrator is to realize that, there is a need to order values and establish priorities by negotiating with themselves, the situation, and others (Rusaw, 2009). Therefore, the administrator has the responsibility of trading their interests for those of the organization (Riccucci, 2009). Administrative responsibility is objective or subjective, where objective are duties by external sources, which include politicians, society, superiors, special interest groups and the organization as extensions of cultural beliefs and values. This is associated to the political ethical role of the administrator, as they meet the duties set up by their organizations to meet organizational goals, missions, vision, and policies (Riccucci, 2009). It also represents an administrator's duties as defined by their superiors. Societal expectations of an administrator represent their citizenry ethical role, which require an administrator to act in the best interest of the society by the established the legal system (Riccucci, 2009). This is also under the influence of social and cultural norms, which make the administrator accountable.

Subjective responsibilities are the inner senses like personal beliefs, feelings and attitudes, which are the products of cognitive, behavioral, and affective elements driven by environment, family, or society. These determine the position an administrator takes on actions or decisions made (Rusaw, 2009). These often conflict with the political or citizenry ethical roles, as personal interest, feelings, beliefs, and culture may drive an administrator to act contrary to set duties. Therefore, given that the administrator is under the influence of external and internal dynamics, they have the role of meeting their administrative responsibility during conflicts. It is during these pensive situations, that an effective administrator evaluates their decisions as legal, ethical, or balanced prior to deciding. Public leadership entails the controlling and limitation of risk taking, accountability, rules, checks, and balances, in applying principles of fairness, justice, and equity.

2.2.2 Social Equity and Public Administration

An ever-increasing global connectivity and a world population living in urban areas, creates an important social and equity justice challenge to public administrators and governments. Questions facing leaders today are the use of land, transportation, education, environment dimensions, health, and social justice (Mercier, 2009). These are becoming a more social equity and justice issue for public administrators, as the grapple with creating sustainable urban transportation, environmental programs, and education systems (Mercier, 2009). Moreover, the global interconnection of states is in the close association with culture, society, markets, and politics. Creating challenges for social equity efforts in public administration as they seek to create global engagement of practices and policies. Beyond this, the public administrator is facing the challenge of applying local responsibility and citizenry participation in administration. This review finds the solution to these challenges lie with the theories of public administration and the interconnectedness of theories.

A main theme of public administration is the attainment of social equity. Social equity in public administration has its roots in the 1960s, at the height of racial and class inequality and injustices (Frederickson, 2010). Social equity is described by its initial elements of justice, fairness, and equality. Public administrators at first applied social equity by emphasizing on gender, and race in employment, service delivery, and democratic participation. Over time, the public administrator has come to acknowledge that this is not possible, as practices have resulted in injustice and unfairness, leading to the inclusion of ethics (Frederickson, 2010). This led to the concept of social equity as a pillar of public administration. As a pillar, it led to the "ethical and equitable treatment of citizens by administrators" as a main concern for public agencies (Frederickson, 2010). This was driven by changes in the society, as citizens called the reinvention of civil rights and government movement. Over time, social equity has evolved to encompass many diverse issues associated with justice, fairness, and equality in public administration.

It is this evolution from encompassing race and gender equality, which drives the theme for the 2013 leadership conference, as leaders discuss new dimensions to social equity. Social equity is currently encompassing issues like use of land, transportation, education, environment dimensions, health, and social justice (Frederickson, 2010). Other emerging social issues facing public administration in the distribution of fairness, justice, and equality are economic issues, especially following the global economic crisis. Public administrators are grappling with the equitable distribution of resources especially in a society where real earnings are rapidly declining. The public administrator has to expand their social equity policies to encompass issues like financial illiteracy, pension policy, declining earnings, housing obsession, and other financial challenges (Deniz & Wakin, 2007). It is for this reason the social equity theme for the 2013 conference is a key theory for discussion for public and private leaders.

2.2.3 Public Administration and Networking

Public administrators work in a networked setup, where the success of programs requires collaboration and coordination with various parties, over whom the leader exercises little formal control. Public administration network is defined by Young & Denize (2008) as, "a pattern of two or more units, in which not all major components are encompassed within a single hierarchical array." The leaders and parties are in bureaucracies connected with organizations outside the line of formal authority. This creates a complex arrangement of relationships, which are motivated by policy makers through intergovernmental links, interagency ties, and mandate private-public partnerships (Young & Denize, 2008). Leadership networks also emerge from self-organized and negotiated initiatives of participants. Administrators choose to network to leverage their capacity for action through joining units that have common pursuits as theirs in the implementation of success (Laurence & Kenneth, 2006). They also seek networks to pool resources and political strength from administrations that have the… [END OF PREVIEW]

Social Work Is a Field That Requires Term Paper


Social Inequality Marx Weber Durkheim Grabb Term Paper


Using Children's Literature to Explore Social Issues Essay


Private Equity and Capital Research Proposal


Case Analysis Social Media Case Study


View 769 other related papers  >>

Cite This White Paper:

APA Format

Social Equity Is a Key.  (2013, March 8).  Retrieved November 14, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/social-equity-key/5275786

MLA Format

"Social Equity Is a Key."  8 March 2013.  Web.  14 November 2019. <https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/social-equity-key/5275786>.

Chicago Format

"Social Equity Is a Key."  Essaytown.com.  March 8, 2013.  Accessed November 14, 2019.
https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/social-equity-key/5275786.