Term Paper: Social Psychology Differ When Applied

Pages: 7 (2408 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 8  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: Psychology  ·  Buy This Paper

SAMPLE EXCERPT:

[. . .] For example in the Japanese culture the employees tend to identify themselves by the companies that they belong to rather than their own individual identities (Nakane, 1970)such as, if they meet someone instead of introducing themselves by talking about their position at the firm they will say that 'they belong to ABC firm' etc. In Japanese culture more importance is given to the group identification rather than the personal attributes. However, if we talk about the behaviour of the American employees in a cultural context, for the Americans group identification is secondary while individual or personal identification is of primary importance (Johnson, 1985; Nakane, 1970)

It has been noticed that in the Japanese culture the loyalty to the company or firms that the employees work for is very high (Cole, 1971) and the bosses take care of the employees and threat them as family too. The bosses in the Japanese culture go as far as arranging the marriages of their employees (Takezawa & Whitehill, 1981). This paternalistic attitude of the bosses for their employees is seen in public and private scenarios in Japanese culture (Lincoln & Kalleburg, 1990).In the American culture the employees do have loyalty and devotion towards their firms but for them personal interests are more important than company's and they put their needs above those of the company (Cousins, 1989).

The social psychology of Japanese with regards to their social environment is to try to go along with others in a harmonious manner. To keep the relationships smooth Japanese people have no problems in making compromises (Hamaguchi, 1985). Whereas, in case of the American culture, it is very important for the people there to have distinctive image as compared to others (Devos, 1985).

In Japanese culture the teamwork is given a lot of importance and strong interdependence among the employees can be seen in Japan (Levine & Campbell, 1972). However, this interdependence does have a negative aspect that these Japanese people don't really open up to the outsiders or people belonging to other ethnicities (Levine & Campbell, 1972). Therefore, the social psychology of Japanese cultures shows more in-group bias (Levine & Campbell, 1972). Whereas, in case of the American culture the employees there are relatively open towards the outsiders.

Social psychology of the Japanese people shows that higher collective self-esteem is exhibited by the Japanese people whereas; higher individual self-esteem is exhibited by the American people (Roland, 1988). Past researches have also shown that the American consider their personal achievements to be responsible for higher individual self-esteem whereas, Japanese people hold their families and firms responsible for their higher individual self-esteem (Roland, 1988).

As, Japan has a high context culture the people there feel very close to their families and relationships and give them a lot of importance. They believe that it is because of their relationships that they get everything in life (Devos, 1985). Whereas, the Americans have a low context culture because of which they have a more self-centred approach towards life and believe that whatever they get in live is because of their own abilities (Devos, 1985).

The image or concept of 'self' is found in the Japanese culture as well but there it is associated with the concept of 'we', 'us'and 'ours' (Devos, 1985). Therefore, the people in Japan associate their individual, personal selves with their family, friends and relationships. While in the American culture the concept of self revolves only around one's self (Devos, 1985). There is this believe of independence in the American society due to which the people their believe themselves to be unique and different than others (Devos, 1985).

Hence, from the above and examples it can be seen that different cultural have very different social psychologies and these psychologies are based on the environment that they live in and the behaviour of the people that they live around as, it was noted that Japan has a high context culture because of which family values are very important there while, American has a low context culture because of which Americans have more self oriented approach as compared to family oriented.

Reference

Baron, R.A., Branscombe, N.R., & Byrne, D. (2008). Social psychology (12th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Cole, R.E. (1971). Japanese blue collar: The changing tradition. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Cousins, S.D. (1989). Culture and self-perception in Japan and United States. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56 (1), 124-131.

Devos, G. (1985). Dimensions of the self in Japanese culture. In A.J. Marsella, G. Devos, & F.L.K. Hsu (Eds.), Culture and Self (pp. 141-184). New York: Tavistock

Fiske, S.T. (2010). Social beings: Core motives in social psychology (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Hamaguchi, E. (1985). A contextual model of the Japanese: Toward a methodological innovation in Japanese studies. Journal of Japanese Studies, 11, 289-321

Hewitt, J.P., & Shulman, D. (2011). Self and society: A symbolic interactionist social psychology (11th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Johnson, F. (1985). The western concept of self. In A.J. Marsella, G. Devos, & F.L.K. Hsu (Eds.), Culture and Self (pp. 91-131). New York: Tavistock

Levine, R.A., & Campbell, D.T. (1972). Ethnocentrism: theories of conflict, ethnic attitudes and group behaviour. New York: Wiley.

Lincoln, J.R., & Kalleburg, A.L. (1990). Culture, control and commitment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Myers, D.G. (2009). Exploring social psychology (5th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Sociable. (2013). In Merriam-Webster. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-

Nakane, C. (1970). Japanese… [END OF PREVIEW]

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