Term Paper: Social Psychology View: What Ensures

Pages: 7 (2368 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 15  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: Sports - Women  ·  Buy This Paper

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[. . .] Oftentimes, however, these problems are exacerbated by their status as minorities who have less socio-economic power and hegemony than Caucasian women do and incur negative stereotypes as a result (Lott and Saxon, 2002, p. 482). Additionally, "Minorities tend to be concentrated in lower paying occupations or in the lower grades of higher occupations" (U.S. Merit, 2009, p. viii). Within the corporate environment, however, it is worth noting that by virtue of their gender, virtually all women are minorities. Those belonging to historical minority groups, then, may be marginalized due to the fact that they have a double minority status. There is evidence that shows that the effects of this fact may be considerably noxious to these women. For instance, a study conducted by Mascaro et al. (2007) revealed that there was a correlation between symptoms of depression and African-American women employed in low-wage environments (p. 541).

Therefore, there are a number of specific measures that are required to ensure that women can receive fair treatment within the workplace. It is crucial to denote the difference between theory and application when discussing these measures, since it takes more than an organization to merely have a policy to properly effect it so that it benefits women. Companywide policies preventing sexual harassment can be beneficial to both Caucasian and minority women. However, such policies are only as efficacious as the disciplinary measures enacted to uphold them, which generally vary between organizations and are typically based on societal norms and expectations for gender roles. It behooves organizations not to have anti-discrimination and anti-harassment policies in place if social conventions "based on gender-based myths and stereotypes" (Ramdas and Janus, 2011, p. 35) are still employed during disciplinary proceedings, or if there are "culture practices and beliefs" (Bisika, 2008, p. 1884) in which such behavior is tolerated.

Additional measures that can help to improve the lot of women in office environments include sufficient education and training, especially for those who are part of racial and ethnic minority groups. Organizations must also make efforts to ensure that they are promoting women equally at the rate that they do men, as well as pay the former salaries commensurate with the latter. Doing so would more than likely require monitoring on the part of the organization, which would also benefit from "gathering and addressing employee perceptions" (U.S. Merit Systems, 2009, p. xi) related to equal opportunities for women.

Conclusion

Women face a number of challenges in the workplace that men do not. A number of these challenges are worsened for women who are part of historical minority groups. Stereotypes and the tendency to judge women based on their gender, race, religion, and socio-economic status inherently plays a role in how women are viewed. As such, they are frequently paid less than men are for performing the same tasks. Also, they are promoted less frequently than men, and incur a number of psychological issues (such as depression and anxiety related to obtaining and keeping steady employment) related to these issues. These issues can also exert a toll on women in their personal lives, especially as they attempt to balance their roles in the workplace with those at home as wives and mothers. However, when one considers the fact that in the relatively recent past (last century) women could not even vote, it appears as though they have made significant progress in the workplace -- although there is still more to come.

References

Bisika, T. (2008). Do social and cultural factors perpetuate gender-based violence in Malawi?.Gender & Behaviour, 6(2), 1884-1896. doi:10.4314/gab.v6i2.23426

Cikara, M., Rudman, L., & Fiske, S. (2012). Dearth by a Thousand Cuts?: Accounting for Gender Differences in Top-Ranked Publication Rates in Social Psychology. Journal Of Social Issues, 68(2), 263-285. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.2012.01748.x

Gilbert, D.G., Fiske, S.T. & Lindzey G. (2010). Handbook of social psychology (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Huerta, M. (2007). Intersections of race and gender in women's experiences of harassment. (Order No. 3253291, University of Michigan). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses,, 110-110 p. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/304848503?accountid=25340. (304848503).

Kamenou, N. (2008). Reconsidering Work -- Life Balance Debates: Challenging Limited Understandings of the 'Life' Component in the Context of Ethnic Minority Women's Experiences. British Journal Of Management, 19S99-S109. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8551.2008.00575.x

Lott, B., & Saxon, S. (2002). The Influence of Ethnicity, Social Class, and Context on Judgments About U.S. Women. Journal Of Social Psychology, 142(4), 481-499.

Mascaro, N., Arnette, N.C., Santana, M., & Kaslow, N.J. (2007). Longitudinal relations between employment and depressive symptoms in low-income, suicidal African-American women. Journal Of Clinical Psychology, 63(6), 541-553.

Plattner I, Mzingwane B. Gender differences in the anticipation of difficulties in finding employment among university students: A Botswana study. Gender & Behaviour [serial online]. 2008;6(2):1960-1981. Available from: PsycINFO, Ipswich, MA. Accessed October 26, 2013.

Ramdas, K.N., & Janus, K. (2011). Ratifying Women's Rights. Policy Review, (169), 29-38.

Scola, B. (2013). Predicting Presence at the Intersections: Assessing the Variation in Women's Office Holding across the States. State Politics & Policy Quarterly, 13(3), 333-348. doi:10.1177/1532440013489141

Thompson, J.A., & Moncrief, G.F. (1993). The Implications of Term Limits for Women and Minorities: Some Evidence from the States. Social Science Quarterly (University Of Texas Press), 74(2), 300-309.

U.S. MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD (2009). FAIR & EQUITABLE TREATMENT:… [END OF PREVIEW]

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