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Society and Culture S Effect on ProcreationResearch Paper

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Reproductive Drive State

The author of this report has been asked to do a scholarly review about the reproductive drive state. Scholarly sources will be used to answer a series of questions about the subject. These questions include how the drive state affected behavior, the biological mechanisms involved in the drive, the social and cultural factors that can affect the drive state, the ethical issues that researchers are looking at in relation to drive state and so forth. There will also be a chosen scenario whereby it will be looked at how a drive state would impact a person within his or her sphere of activity and what would be recommended to deal with the associated challenges. While there are things such as willpower and self-control, there are also biological, social and cultural factors that have a great effect on the reproductive drive state and how it affects human behavior in a given person and situation.

Literature Review

The biological mechanisms that relate to the reproductive drive are fairly well-known. Essentially, these are the organs and other structures in men and women that relate to procreation and reproduction. In men, this would include the testes, the penis and so forth. With women, there are the labia, the clitoris, the fallopian tubes and the ovaries. The state of the reproductive drive affects behavior in fairly obvious and easy-to-see ways. When there is attraction and arousal with men and women, they tend to engage in certain behaviors that would not normally happen when the drive is not engaged and active. This is not to say that people in an aroused reproductive state are mindless and engage in depravity. However, they do tend to gravitate more to sexual acts and behavior than people that are not in such a state (McLafferty, Johnstone, Hendry & Farley, 2014).

Beyond the above, there are cultural and social factors that have bearing on the state of the reproductive drive. Whether it be norms or attitudes about sex, music, movies, advertising or just about any form of media in general, there always seems to be a tinge of focus on attraction and sexual behavior. This is manifested by the way people dress, act and interact with each other. Indeed, there is a reason why people play certain kind of songs, read certain kind of books and watch certain types of movies when their reproductive state is active or highly active. Then, of course, are the actions committed by people in enhanced reproductive states such as the pursuit and engagement of like-minded (or sometimes non-likeminded) people that mutually wish to engage in the act of procreation or the simulation thereof when it comes to safe sex and contraception use. Something that is widely held and believed is that the sex-related mechanisms mentioned earlier influence behavior but the same thing seems to happen in reverse in many instances (Corbo, Gambina & Scacchi, 2012).

When speaking of social and cultural factors, there has to be mention of some facets of that paradigm which are concerning or even shocking. Indeed, there are those that say that culture and society influence sexual and reproductive behavior in ways that are somewhat to very destructive. It can be something moderately concerning such as general lack of using safe sex methods, more severe events like having unplanned pregnancies or engaging in even riskier sexual behavior such as having unprotected sex with multiple and/or unknown partners or even the worst such as "rape culture" mindsets and the promotion of any sort of coerced or subjugating acts of a sexual nature. There have been advocacy groups and other people that have tried to beat back such behavior and trends but the amount of people engaging in sex without consent, sex with people that are drunk/high and sex of any sort with under-age minors is alarmingly high and even more alarmingly unreported despite the obvious and crystal clear depravity that is those acts. Of course, so many of those acts are more about control and domination than sex but the latter is obviously part of the equation and the influence of the reproductive drive state cannot be ignored as part of the proverbial equation (Nikula, Gissler, Jormananien, Sevon & Hemminki, 2009).

When it comes to the research of the reproductive drive state, there is a litany of ethical and other challenges that researchers need to be mindful of. First, not all actions borne of influences of one's reproductive drive are healthy, normal or, in some extreme cases, legal. As such, inducing or influencing people in any way when it comes to the reproductive drive state is fraught with ethical landmines. Also, sex and sexual activity are one of those things that people will not do (or do the same way) when they are being watched and there is obviously a defect with research where the results cannot be directly obtained. Indeed, if someone is being interviewed about what sexual positions they use, what contraception they use or anything else of the sort, there is no telling how accurate or complete the data is given that things might be left out, changed, or included that are not really genuine. Some research subjects are hard because of complexity. Other subjects are hard because of the inability (or unlikelihood) of getting true first-hand research data. Reproductive drive state subjects are a little of both, it would seem (Price & Hawkins, 2002).

As far as a real-life situation where one could study what happens or does not happen vis-a-vis the reproductive drive state, one could look at professional athletes or entertainers. Typically, women flock to such people and "throw themselves" at such people. Many men are more than willing to cooperate with those efforts and will often engage in high amounts of sexual activity. However, this can be problematic given that many are married and/or have families. Even so, temptation and the hormones that drive the reproductive drive can be very hard to minimize and otherwise deal with. Even so, there are some people that do it every day while others fail miserably and cheat on their wives or girlfriends incessantly. One could study what marks the difference between the two in terms of coping and mindsets. It could and would be assessed whether it is simply a matter of willpower or if anyone will cheat given the right opportunity. Perhaps it might be like drug addicts where one has to remove themselves (or never enter) situations where engaging in adulterous or otherwise improper behavior is a seemingly foregone conclusion. Indeed, one has to ask whether it is like mental health where willpower will eventually fail eventually or if free will and dedication to one's ideals and vows are enough (Grossbard, Lee, Neighbors, Hendershot & Larimer, 2007). Regardless, it is true that entertainers, athletes and other famous people are more than able to engage in that behavior fairly easily. At the same time, there are athletes that have raped, assaulted and otherwise sexually abused others in a way that is excessive or just flat wrong (Parrot & Cummings, 1994). One might ask why a person with lots of money and fame would ever need to rape or assault any woman in a sexual manner. Indeed, there are a lot of variables and these would include whether a person (rich or not) is dysfunctional or violent when it comes to their reproductive state and how they respond in general to their perceived or actual sexual "needs" as defined by Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs and other frameworks (Cullen & Gotell, 2002).


As with most complex systems and frameworks, the state of the reproductive drive and what it leads to is a very finicky thing to measure and look at. There are so many variables and outcomes that can occur and why each one might happen can actually have more than one simple or circuitous explanation. People marry for different reasons, have kids with people for certain reasons, pay mind to (or not enough) to the possibility of having children, pay mind to (or not enough) to the riskiness of the behaviors in question and so forth. Throw in the fact that there are at least two (if not more) people involved in any such situation and the motives and words of each party can differ greatly in terms of content and authenticity, and the picture gets even more muddled. However, there are a few things that are more than clear. People are often greatly affected by the state of their reproductive drive. Whether it relates to the general urge to have sex, the "ticking clock" with many aging women or anything else like that, it is beyond question that the reproductive drive state has a great amount of influence on what people do, what they do not do and why. However, it is also true that people can push back against their urges and predilections. Despite all of that, mental health, environment and life patterns play a huge part in what ends up happening… [END OF PREVIEW]

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