Term Paper: Sociological Theory Sociology

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[. . .] Relevance of the novel, America to our contemporary reality

The book is set on the leading theme of the societal interactions and changes that the society experiences from the interactions that happen in these meetings. The novel America is exceptionally reflective of the reality in the life of the contemporary America today. The social structural change that the American society experienced in the wake of the civilization era, and, which continues to occur today, is what the novel America covers. The novel tells of a story of the interactions between immigrants into America and the Americans that they found occupying the nation. It is true that the interactions existed long before the presentation depicted in the novel as though the interaction began only when the immigrant daughter met the president.

The interactions between immigrants began long before the president met the immigrant daughter; however, the society remained in oblique to the interactions, until when the president meets this daughter of the immigrant society (Adams & Sydie, 2001). This then marks the begging of the rebirth of a new nation and a new dawn in the society. The novel narrates the origin of the social structural changes that occurred from the interactions between the immigrants and the American people they found in the country. The novel tells of a birth of a new nation that happens through the influences of the different cultures in politics, economic and sociology of the lives (Bratton, Denham & Deutschmann, 2009). A new social culture results from these interactions, hence the representation of the society in the reality in this fictional writing. The creative mind of Debrizzi had the visualization of the future in the American society while writing this book. It is a clear representation of the contemporary life happenings in the society as it shows the journey through societal structural change and a consequent influence of the interactions between the different cultures, beliefs and practices (Burke & Stets, 2009). The new society that emanate from this novel illustrates the change in the American society today; therefore, it is conclusive that the novel, America by Debrizzi does represent the American society and is exceptionally relevant to the contemporary American life.

Ideas and theories of different sociologists and the novel America by Debrizzi

Karl Marx

Karl Marx is among the world's best sociologists, and the developers of the first theories of sociology. His main ideas in sociology base on the premise that, "the history of all the existing societies is the history of a class of struggles" (Skousen, 2007). According to Karl Max, since the inception of the human society from the primitive and relatively undifferentiated state, the society remains a fundamentally divided series of classes, with evident clashes in the pursuit of class interests. For instance, in the world of capitalism, the cell of a capitalist system is the central locus of the antagonism between the classes of the exploiters and the exploited. The interests of the different classes and the confrontations of power bring the central determinant of the social and historical processes. Additionally, Marx's theory analyses how the relative positions of men concerning the production process and access to the scarce resources and inadequate power determines the relationships between men.

Karl Marx points that the economic forces control the historical development more than any other force. History illustrates the conflicts among the different classes of society (Skousen, 2007). The government supports one class of society to smother the others and that the lone means to achieve social change is by use of violence. As it is evident from the novel America, the interactions between immigrants and the American people resulted in an eerie of silence. This indicates that the ideas that Marx propagates, as pertains the facets of governance and their weight on the sociological developments is true. Although the aspect of achieving social change is not applicable in most scenarios, as there are other methods of realizing the change. Nonetheless, the ideas that Marx discusses in his theory of classes is relevant to the ideas propagated in the novel by Debrizzi.

Saint-Simone

Saint-Simone presented a different approach towards the development of sociology and the societal groups. In his approach to the development of the field, he identified four key ideas that he based most in his argument. Among those ideas that he proposed and strongly argued upon include the idea of the society creating a new world, and the need for the unification of sciences. Secondly, he had the idea that there is a need to develop a science of society, from the analogues of natural sciences such as physics and biology. He also proposes that scientists should take over the leadership of society. It is evident that Saint Simone bases his ideas on optimistic view of the industrial society, focusing on the rapid progress that is prevalent in the productive forces. He thought that focusing on the facts and organizing these facts would help in expunging the growing antagonisms that the revolutionary uphill caused. In relation to the ideas propagated in the novel, simone's ideas on the development of the new world emanates. However, his idea of using the scientific and optimistic approach that does not rely on philosophy is not relevant. Therefore, most of his sociological approaches and the ideas he believes do not reflect the story told in the novel, America.

Max Weber

Max Weber in developing his sociological theory bases his arguments on the social action. The action theory that he developed describes the various factors that are subject of the influence causing the action, and serve as the foundations for the society (Allen, 2004). To illustrate his theory clearly, Weber established the dissimilarity between the concepts of act and behavior. He described behavior as an automatic response that results from little thought, and action as the outcome of a conscious route that gives meaning to the action and the world around the person. He was concerned with understanding the actions of people, to establish a cognitive approach to the behaviors and features of the society. He also focused on the formulation of four different types of rationality. These include the practical, theoretical, formal and substantive rationales (Ballantine & Roberts, 2010). He thus, established the contribution of the historical processes in transforming the western world. Additionally, Weber focused on the different types of authority and the forms of legitimate domination. In this development, he developed a structure of authority, which consisted of traditional, charismatic and rational-legal types of governance. These types of authority are useful in several models of examining the society and the phenomenon of governance.

It is evident that the theory of social action is relevant to the story told in the novel America; as it indicates and explains the interactions between the authority of the social order at the point, and the relational behavior of the immigrant society (Allen, 2004). The cultures propagated by the immigrant society; mixed with those of the present society led to the birth of a new society. The authority changed due to the various actions and behaviors that the new society introduced. This is an exemplification of the relationship between Weber's notions and the story in the novel.

Emile Durkheim

Emile Durkheim is among the founders of the sociology discipline. His efforts of establishing sociology as a distinct field from that of philosophy and psychology earned him the honor (Thompson & Durkheim, 2002). His particulate concept on the social structures showed that sociology is different from any other discipline. He studied the social factors independently and empirically, proving his point and developing his theory of social development.

His work discusses several ideas, including that of labor. He showed that visible division of labor, which makes the individuals dependent upon each other. He articulated that division of labor holds the modern society together since; they all specialize in different types of works (Thompson & Durkheim, 2002). His main concern is how the division of labor and specialization changes the way the individuals fell as part of a whole society. In societies where people engage in a single occupation, the mechanical solidarity brings them together. Modern society depends on organic solidarity due to the differences in specialization. The feature of a mechanical solidarity is repressive law, whereas that of the organic solidarity is restitutive law.

From the novel, as the immigrants arrived, they needed to work. They had their specialization, and those in the country had their specialization. However, due to the present American people imposing a job description on the immigrants, conflicts emerged. These conflicts, therefore, defied the theory and idea of division of labor that Durkheim proposes. However, the ideas are relevant as they show what caused the new world formed from the conflicts and the society that resulted.

Auguste Comte

Comte is the man who invented the term sociology. His ideas and views contributed in the development of the field (Marsh, 2002).… [END OF PREVIEW]

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