South Africa Under the Apartheid Term Paper

Pages: 14 (3936 words)  ·  Style: MLA  ·  Bibliography Sources: 6  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Literature - African


, while the later involved the elements and actins of segregation. It was the grand apartheid that was practiced by the National party for a longer period of time (up to 1990s) whiles the petty apartheid was abolished way earlier in the 80s.

The Homeland System

Through this system, several black South Africans had their citizenship revoked. Forcing them to legally become members of one of the ten tribally-based units of administration (Bantustans-tribal homelands).Out of the ten tribal homelands four later became independent states. The homelands were situated in areas that were tiny and lacked any form of viable economic resources. They were generally unproductive parts of South Africa.

However several blacks never stayed in their designated homelands. The system therefore disenfranchised the blacks who resided in the "white" part of South Africa. This was because it restricted their voting rights to their originally predetermined black settlements. Other areas that the government segregated included education, medical services and several other public services. In a nutshell, the government provided the blacks with inferior services of all the races. The government designed the education system for the blacks to prepare them to come out of school as a laboring lot.

The Homeland system was based on the basic tenets of segregation. The following were the basic tenets that the homeland system relied on:-

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The first one was to arrange the South African population into African, Indian, colored and white racial groups. Then the second tenet was segregate according to race, the South African urban population. This was then followed by the restriction of the process of urbanization of the African communities. Another tenet just concentrated on tightly controlling and restricting the migration of labor. The homeland system further preached more tribalism in the way Africans were administrated. The final tenet was aimed at giving more powers to the legislations that were concerned with security and control of the population.

TOPIC: Term Paper on South Africa Under the Apartheid Assignment

The government designed the homelands as a way of separation on the basis of territories.

The "grand apartheid" was put in motion by two laws. This form of separation was centered on the idea of separating the South African races by means of special separations. The divisions forced people to live in separate places as prescribed by their races. In 1950, the first grand apartheid law was passed. The Population Act demanded that all citizens be grouped in accordance to their respective races. Their races were then recorded in their identity cards (passes).However, a problem arose for the people of mixed races (colored) since it was difficult to determine their race exactly. The government then formed Official boards to handle the issue. This resulted in a lot of difficulty for the people of mixed races since their families were separated and located in different races.

Forced Removal

In the earlier 1960s and unto the 1980s the South African government put in action a policy that seeks to resettle people onto their originally designated "homelands." Millions of South Africans were forced to move to their original tribal homelands during that period. The forced removals included South Africans who were evicted in the process of slum upgrade processes. Others who were moved included black land owners who were unlucky to be surrounded by the whites since their settlements were referred to as the black spots. Several people were evicted from Western Cape and then relocated and settled to Ciskei and Transkei homelands.However, the most notable resettlement was the on that involved the relocation of over sixty thousand people from Johannesburg to the newly established Soweto Townships.

Another notable example of forceful resettlement was that one of Sophiatown.It had been the one of the very few urban centers where black people were allowed to own land and property. It rate of growth also allowed it to contain other races within its residents.However, as the Johannesburg industry grew, it turned to be an exponentially growing residence of black workers since it was near to town and more convenient in its location. As it was one of the pioneer black settlements in Johannesburg, it held an iconic value to the black South Africans. Its unique value added to its value by the blacks. It contained over fifty thousand black South Africans.

The ANC held heated protest s in order to oppose the government's plan to destroy Sophiatown.However, the government finally removed the town after evicting the residents forcefully. The resident of Sophiatown was resettled on a very large piece of land a little far from the city center. The piece of land was called the Meadowsland and was earlier on purchased by the government. It later became part of the black city -- Soweto.Sophiatown was bulldozed and a new white suburb called Triumph constructed to replace it .There was a series of forced evictions over the years and it never was targeting only the black residences but also the colored and the Indian residences and settlements. Other areas from which people were evicted included Durban, Cape Town and District Six.

Petty Apartheid

The dominating National Party approved a series of laws and Acts that were referred to as the petty apartheid. These pieces of legislations governed various aspects of the South African races. They dictated how the married, how they had their leasure, where they seated, where they walked and even how they dated in relationships.

The very first of the petty apartheid acts to be passed was the Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Acts of 1949.The acts put a stop to marriages between the white people and people of other "lesser" races. Then followed the Immorality Amendment Act of 1950.It prohibited unlawful racial relationships and any other indecent acts associated with it.

Human Rights Violations in the Apartheid era.

The human right violations that occurred during apartheid were countless.

The main ones included the killings and torture such as that of Steve Biko

There were also cases of denial of freedom of speech and assembly -- An example is the killings that occurred during the student protests in Soweto Uprising. There were also cased of discrimination and oppression. The blacks were subjected to harsh living conditions. They were also called names and treated without equality.

The other forms of human rights violation included the denial from quality education and proper medical care.

Lack of freedom of movement was also notable through the administration of the Pass Law. Unjust imprisonment was also notable.

The blacks were also forced to do hard labor with low pay

In a nutshell a variety of human right violations occurred in the apartheid era. The magnitude of which varied over time and also depending the ruler who was in power at any particular time of that dark regime.

World's reaction to apartheid

Several nations criticized the South African regime of apartheid. This was mark able when the Commonwealth member countries forced South Africa out of the association due to its low record on human right as concerns the apartheid rule.

It is worth noting that it was only the Nordic countries such as Sweden that supported the ANC both morally and financially. They supported the anti-apartheid campaigns in full.

Other Western countries adopted a non-committal stand. It was later on when they all nations jointly criticized the system after the establishment of the United Nations.

Other countries such as The U.S.A. slapped the South African government with economic sanctions.

It is important to note that the abolishment of the apartheid movement was to a large extent due to external pressure from other nations of the world

The end of apartheid

The apartheid system had its first signs of failure in the 1980s.With factors such as millions of unemployed population, and a decreasing white minority, the onset of the apartheid failure began. Other factors were the increasing black resistance and several international sactions.It was in 1989 after Fredrick de Klerk was elected president that he committed himself to uniting the minority and the majority.

The fall of Communism also marked an important milestone in the abolishment of the apartheid era. The soviets were supporters of the oppressive system.

In 1990.Fredrick de Klerk removed the ban on AC and freed Nelson Mandela from prison. He also saw the peaceful transition of South Africa to a multiracial state.

Free multi-racial elections were then held in 21994 and Mandela elected the President. Apartheid the was fully abolished.

The Key figures involved in the Apartheid era

The following are the key figures who were involved with the apartheid era.

Supporters of Apartheid

Louis Botha-He ruled South Africa between 1910 and 1919 as the first Prime Minister.

Jan Christaan Smuts -- He became the Prime Minister after Louis Botha between 1919 to 1924.He played a very fundamental role in the formation of the League of the Nations.

He formed a coalition with the Nationalist Party lead to the existence of the United Party. His tenure as the Prime Minister lasted between 1939 and 1948.

J.G.H. Hertzog -- He was the founder… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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