Soviet Union and Stalin Era Term Paper

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He stood for a peasant's private ownership of land. Collectivization of agriculture, therefore, was a thoroughly political and ideological category, not only an economic one.Buy full Download Microsoft Word File paper
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Term Paper on Soviet Union and Stalin Era Assignment

Collectivization was a leveling of life in order to stifle everything creative in a human being. Collectivization was a method of national oppression with the help of massive efforts to impose a hostile ideology of life upon a subjugated nation. The French, the English, the Dutch and the Belgians by no means imposed their way of life upon the countries acquired by them. But, the Russian did the contrary. They force their way of life upon the subjugated nations as a means of dominating them. Thus, for instance, in literature or art socialist realism was a form of Russian imperialism. It was an attempt at spiritual Russification, which hand in hand with linguistic Russification was to force the subjugated peoples to accept the 'reality' of Russian slavery, the dictates of Russia, as the subject of their creativity. Russia sent its troops to take away the harvest, the bread, from Ukraine by force. Hundreds of thousands of Russian troops plundered Ukrainian villages, confiscating all grain and killing people. The Ukrainian peasant resisted joining the kolkhoz, resisted giving his land to the Russians. An uneven battle ensued. The Ukrainian village rose against collectivization. The peasants perished in battle with Russian troops, but did not go to the kolkhozes. The struggle continued for many months. The Russian armies crushed the peasants' uprising against collectivization. They took bread from Ukraine to Russia. The Ukrainian peasants perished by the millions in the villages and in the streets of cities. Ukraine did not surrender. When the mothers and children, and the elderly and the sick were dying in the streets of towns and villages, the insurrection was crushed by the Russians The Russian tyrants, Stalin and Molotov, temporarily crushed the resistance of the Ukrainian nation at the price of millions of Ukrainian victims. Several million so-called kulaks, i.e. Ukrainian well-to-do farmers, were forcefully deported to Siberia either to concentration camps or to dig canals. At that time, the Ukrainian nation lost over ten million victims of Russian Bolshevik terror. However, Russia failed to break the Ukrainian nation. It revived again. The Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) organized the struggle of the nation anew and continue to do so at present. Ukraine continued to fight.

The Battle of Stalin Grad: Russia has always had the cities, which played a most significant part in its history. Undoubtedly, Stalingrad is doubtfully one of those cities. It has become the symbol of pain and suffering, the symbol of the greatest fortitude of the soviet nation. Stalingrad Battle is one of the supreme battles of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-45, the war of the Soviet Union against Germany and its allies -- Hungary, Italy, Romania and Finland. The Great Patriotic War presents itself as the most important part of the World War II. With the constantly growing tension of the forces on the both sides, The Stalingrad Battle lasted 200 days and nights - since July 17, 1942 up to February 2, 1943. The Stalingrad Battle can be relatively divided into two periods -- the defensive one, starting from the July 17 up to November 18, 1942 and the offensive one, beginning from the November 19, 1942 up to February 2, 1943. The news of the beginning of the Stalingrad Battle reached Stalingrad on July 22, 1942. By the evening of the same day all the military enlistment, offices were overcrowded with volunteers, willing to head off for the defense of their homeland. From the very outset of the war the military forces of the U.S.S.R. were combined of the Red Army (land forces), air forces and naval forces. By the same time, Germany had all the modern military forces - Verrmaht, which had gained the battle-tried experience while capturing the countries of the Eastern Europe and included land, air and naval forces. Since the very first days of the war, Stalingrad turned into one of the largest arsenals in the southwest of the country. The plants and the factories of the city were occupied with the production and maintenance of tanks, artillery guns, mortars, watercrafts, submachine guns and other armaments. Several militia units were formed in Stalingrad. The city turned into a sizable hospital center. The Stalingrad Defense Committee was founded, which played an important role in the coordination of the actions of the civil and military officials. The plans of the German command for the summer of 1942 had the aim of destroying soviet armies in the south of the country, taking over the oil regions of Caucasus, agricultural regions of Don and Kuban, interrupting the communication between the center of the country and the Caucasus and forming the conditions for the victorious ending of the war. In the months of December and January, the German 6th Army fought a desperate contest against Soviet forces. Hitler ordered that the German Armies may not surrender; they must fight to the bitter end. Most of the soldiers followed Hitler's orders and fought heroically to the death. Finally, with no food and supplies, the situation for the Germans looked bleak. The Army was on the verge of starvation. Field Marshall Paulus had no choice but to surrender what was left of the 6th Army and 4th Panzer Army. The Casualties in the battle of Stalingrad were catastrophic for both sides. The Germans lost 147,000 men and 91,000 were taken prisoner. The Red Army paid a huge price for victory, some half million men were killed in the battle. The battle of Stalingrad showed to the world that the mighty German war machine was vulnerable. It gave overwhelming confidence and strength to the Red Army. Also, the battle became the turning point on the Eastern Front. The Red Army began to slowly push the invaders out of the Soviet Union.

The Brezhnev Doctrine: Leonid Brezhnev ruled the Soviet Union longer than any previous leader except Stalin. Communists say that the Soviet Union, under his leadership, improved the standards of living by raising urban salaries by around 75%, doubling rural wages, building millions of one-family apartments, and manufacturing large quantities of consumer goods and home appliances. Under his tutelage, industrial output also increased by 75%, and the Soviet Union became the world's largest producer of oil and steel. Others note the economic inefficiency that became notorious under Brezhnev, the repression of those who disagreed with the Soviet regime and the environmental vandalism that occurred throughout the country. He also introduced the Brezhnev Doctrine, which stated:

When forces that are hostile to socialism and try to turn the development of some socialist country towards capitalism, it becomes not only a problem of the country concerned, but a common problem and concern of all socialist countries." This effectively meant that no country was allowed to leave the Warsaw pact, and the doctrine was used to justify the invasions of Czechoslovakia in 1968 and Afghanistan in 1979. In 1988, the new Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev officially abandoned the doctrine and replaced it with the Sinatra Doctrine in which each nation was allowed to develop in their own way.

The Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan: The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan was a 10-year war, which wreaked incredible havoc and destruction on Afghanistan. The 'shooting' war is generally held to have started December 24, 1979. Soviet troops ultimately withdrew from the area between May 15, 1988 and February 2, 1989. On February 15, the Soviet Union officially announced that all of its troops had left Afghanistan. The war was regarded by many as an unprovoked invasion of a sovereign country by another. The United Nations General Assembly passed United Nations Resolution 37/37 on November 29, 1982, which stated that the Soviet Union forces should withdraw from Afghanistan. However, others supported the Soviet Union, regarding it as coming to the rescue of an impoverished ally, or as a pre-emptive war against Islamic terrorists. At the beginning of 1978, the Communist regime took power in Kabul. In October 1979, the Soviet Union began mobilization. In December 1979, the final airlift of combat troops in support of the assault against the government took place. The timeline below offers a list of significant events during this period.

A number of theories have been advanced for the Soviet action. Some believe the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan was intended to prevent constituent SSR's in the southern Soviet Union from breaking away. At the time of the invasion, Iran had recently staged an Islamic revolution, deposing a United States-supported government. The newly instituted government was no more friendly to the Soviet Union than to the United States. This signified an additional axis of power in Eurasian politics (along with the Soviet Union itself, the Peoples Republic of China, and NATO), much to the Soviets dismay.

After its revolution, Iran had sufficient religious, political, and economic motivations to expand revolution northward into… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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