Term Paper: Spain's Missionary Efforts in North American on Public Policy Towards Volatile Movements

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[. . .] Skills in weaving were needed to assist the Indians. They also were skilled in carpentry which was done under the direction of the craftsmen who was hired by the Spanish missionaries.

In the closing managing area of the mission, most of the time, Native Americans were expected to grow in their Christianity and also learn economics and political practices until they no longer need a special mission status. In Texas, the Catholic mission system was not that strong when it came to politics. It was not strong enough to protect the Native Americans against the growing power ranchers and other in the area. It also did not protect them against certain business interest that were seeking control over Spanish missions. Basically the Spanish missionaries system was week in Texas, they were overwhelmed by manpower type's people seeking out the land in Texas. However, in the first few years in Texas, they were able to get the Indians or Native Americans to become secular and also to copy and adopt the Spanish customs. However, there were certain places in Texas where the Spanish missionaries had a hard time trying to get the Native Americans to submit to their control and you also adopt their Spanish customs. For example, In out Paso Texas, which was turned over to diocesan pastors in 1852, was not easily colonized by the Spanish missionaries.

Spanish Missionaries in California

In California the Spanish missions had somewhere around 21 villages and military outpost established by Catholic priest. All of these briefs were from the Franciscan order between 1769 and 1835 to spread Christianity among local Native Americans.[footnoteRef:7] The Spanish missionaries were among the first to colonize Coast area which was considered to be the most western and northern part of Spain North American claims. The Spanish missionaries were very beneficial to the Native Americans in California. They were of good benefits to the locals because they brought in horses, cattle, vegetables different type of technology into the California region. However the Spanish colonization of California likewise brought some severe and negative circumstances to the Native Americans populations. [7: Elliott, J.H. (2006). Empires of the Atlantic World: Britain and Spain in America, 1492-1830. New Haven: Yale University Press.]

In the 1830s, California, decided to make sure that the Native Americans were more modernized. Spanish missionaries at mix results in their goals: educate to convert, and civilized indigenous population and then try to make sure they are being transformed into Spanish colonial citizens.

It is clear that California is displaying "high water mark" of Spanish colonization in North America. With that being said, it was likewise the last northernmost colony on the continent. The Spanish mission system was important because Spain need a hold on the New World. Understanding the fact that the new colony something easy to handle, Spanish missionaries look for help for from Spain. Missionaries convert and then make tax paying citizen of the Native Americans that they conquered. In California at that time, to become a Spanish citizen and a productive person, all Native Americans had to learn Spanish and then they had to learn some kind of a vocational skill along with Christian teachings that the Spanish missionaries required for them to learn.

The Alta California Spanish missions were recognized as reductions or congregations, and were basically some settlements established by the Spanish settlers of the New World with the intent of completely integrating indigenous populations into the Catholic religion and European culture. It was a doctrine recognized in 1531, which was basing the Spanish state's privilege over the land and individuals of the Indies on the Papal charge to in order try and evangelize them. It was also employed anywhere the indigenous inhabitants were not previously focused in native pueblos. Most of the Indians were the ones that were congregated around the mission proper by means of using forced resettlement, at which point they were "shortened" from an seeming free "disorderly'" state and ultimately transformed into "civilized" comrades of colonial society.[footnoteRef:8] [8: Bay, p. 35]

However, their own civilized and disciplined culture, which was developed some 8,000 years of freedom, was not even looked at. The research shows that a total of 146 Friars Minor, every one of whom were intended as priests served in California in 1845. During this time some 67 missionaries died at their posts (two of them are considered to martyrs: Padres Luis Jayme and Andres Quintana), while the remainder decided to just head on back to Europe because of illness, or upon finishing their ten-year service promise.[footnoteRef:9] As the guidelines of the Franciscan Order prohibited friars to live unaccompanied, two missionaries were then assigned to each settlement, sequestered in the mission's convent.[footnoteRef:10] To these, the governor apportioned a that was of five or six soldiers and they were all up under the command of a corporal, who largely acted as overseer of the mission's historical affairs, subject to the fathers' way of doing things.[footnoteRef:11] [9: Gibson, C. (1967). Spain in America. New York City: Harper Torchbooks, the University Library.] [10: Bolton, p. 123] [11: Hackel, S.W. (2005). Children of Coyote, Missionaries of Saint Francis: Indian-Spanish Relations in Colonial California, 1769-1850 (Published for the Omohundro Institute ... History and Culture, Williamsburg, Virginia) . Williamsburg, Virginia: The University of North Carolina Press.]

As the Mexican republic started becoming more and more mature, they started making some calls to force the secularization of the Spanish missions more and more.[39] research shows that Jose Maria de Echeandia, the first native Mexican that was elected Governor of Alta California gave out a "Proclamation of Emancipation" which took place on July 25, 1826.[footnoteRef:12] Every type of Indian that lived within the military regions of Santa Barbara, San Diego, and Monterey who were the ones that discovered found to be qualified were then let go freed from missionary rule and made qualified to turn out to be citizens Mexico. Investigation shows that those who desired to stay under mission tutelage were excused from most types of corporal punishment. [41][42] [footnoteRef:13]when it reached sometime in 1830 even the populations that were looked at being neophyte themselves started looking to self-assured in their own abilities to function in the mission farms and ranches self-sufficiently; the padres, on the other hand, mistrusted the competences of their charges in this respect.[43] [12: ibid] [13: Burkholder, M.A. (2006). Choice, persuasion, and coercion: Social control on spain's north american frontiers. Choice, 43(7), 1287-1288.]

Quickening immigration, both, rose pressure on the Alta California government so as to capture the mission properties and dispossess the natives in conformity with Echeandia's instruction. [footnoteRef:14] In spite of the circumstance that Echeandia's freedom plan was met with little encouragement from the novices who occupied the southern Spanish missions, he was however unwavering when it came down to testing the scheme on a much larger scale at Mission San Juan Capistrano. To that end, he chose an amount of comisionados (commissioners) to supervise the liberation of the Indians. [footnoteRef:15] Research shows that the Mexican government were the ones that passed lawmaking on December 20, 1827. When this law was passed it basically made the point that the expulsion of all Spaniards that were younger than sixty years of age from Mexican lands; Governor Echeandia on the other hand interfered on behalf of some of the Spanish missionaries so as to stop their exile once the law went into effect in California.[footnoteRef:16]Governor Jose Figueroa at first made the attempts to keep the mission system in order, however, the Mexican Congress were the ones that passed an Act for the Secularization of the Missions of California that took place on August 17, 1833. Of course, the Act likewise provided for the colonization of each Baja and Alta California, the expenditures of this last move to be borne by the profits increased from the deal of the mission property to private benefits. [14: Elliott, p.230] [15: Elliott, p.234] [16: ibid]

The very first to feel the effects of secularization was the Mission of San Juan Capistrano, on August 9, 1834 Governor Figueroa was brought to his "Verdict of Repossession." [footnoteRef:17]Nine other settlements rapidly followed, and the after that six more took place in 1835; the last to yield were San Francisco de As's and San Buenaventura, in 1836. [footnoteRef:18]Soon afterward, the Franciscans were the ones that abandoned most of the Spanish missions, taking with them almost everything of value, after which the citizens typically took away the mission buildings for materials used for construction. Likewise, the Past mission pasture lands were separated into big land grants called ranchos, highly cumulating the amount of private land assets in Alta California. [17: Hackel, p.156] [18: Gibson, C. (1967). Spain in America. New York City: Harper Torchbooks, the University Library.]

Life among the natives was very interesting, especially when it came down to young native women they were obligated to reside somewhere in the monjerio (or "monastery") under the administration of a… [END OF PREVIEW]

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