Spirituality in Young Children's Temperament and Self-Control: Cultural Influence Literature Review

Pages: 3 (1150 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 3  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Children

" (Sharley, 2012, p. 1) It is reported that both Zapf (2005a) and Spretnak (1991) relate that spiritual values from this view make the assumption that nature and people are "inextricably linked." (Sharley, 2012, p. 1) Specifically stated about the tie that people have to the land is "A people rooted in the land over time have exchanged their tears, their breath, their bones, all of their element -- oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, all the rest -- with their habitat many times over. Here nature knows us." (Sharley, 2012, p. 1) From this view the individual is not held to be a different but the same as the natural environment and as such "conceptualized as a living system that is a source of energy and knowledge." (Sharley, 2012, p. 1) The physical environment form this view "does not provide a passive backdrop to human action but is a 'sensate conscious entity suffused with spiritual powers." (Sharley, 2012, p. 1) The ancestral relationships are reported to provide the individual with "clarity about the obligations, rights, roles and practices for connecting with people within and outside the culture of the whanu (wider family grouping), iwi (tribe) and hapu (Sub-tribe). (Sharley, 2012, p. 1) From the Western view this is known as the ecological or biopsychosocial model and conceptualizes the development of the child as "being influenced by interactive relationships occurring across a number of subsystems at ontogenic-level or the level of the individual, the micro-level of the family, and the exo-level or the community and finally at the macro-level or socio-cultural in the environment of the child.

III. Holladay (2007)

Children are influenced by music

Children are influenced by media

Children are influenced by television

Literature Review on Spirituality in Young Children's Temperament and Self-Control: Cultural Influence Assignment

Holladay (2007) reports that George Barna, known for conducting surveys and specifically related is that in Barna's studies on parenting and child development the following facts were revealed: "By the time an American child is 23 years of age, as was the killer in Virginia, he has seen countless murders among the more than 30,000 violent acts to which he is exposed through television, movies, and video games." (p.1) Holladay also relates "By age 23, the average American will have viewed thousands of hours of pornographic images, which diminish the dignity and the value of human life." (p.1) As well, Barna is reported by Holladay to have stated the following fact: "After nearly a quarter of a century, the typical American will have listened to hundreds of hours of music (I'll say thousands of hours of music) that fosters anger, hatred, disrespect for authority, selfishness, and radical independence. The younger generation is hooked on music." (2007, p.1) There is no doubt that culture has a great impact on the child's spiritual development, or alternatively, the lack of spiritual development of in the child.


Einoth, SR (2010) Building Strong Foundations World Vision's Focus on Early Childhood Development and Child Well-being. A research project carried out on behalf of the World Vision Institute for Research and Development in co-operation with the Child Development and Rights Team within World Vision International's Children in Ministry Department. Friedrichsdorf/Germany . May 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.worldvision-institut.de/_downloads/allgemein/TheorieUndPraxis_5_StrongFoundations.pdf

Holloday, R. (2007) Cultural Trends Influence Our Children. United Church of God. 28 Apr 2007. Retrieved from: http://www.ucg.org/sermon/cultural-trends-influence-our-children/

Sharley, V. (2012) New ways of thinking about the influence of cultural identity,… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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