Sports Management Term Paper

Pages: 18 (7403 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: ≈ 34  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Sports

SAMPLE EXCERPT . . .

This indicates that sport can be advantageous not only through involvement of people in it, but also through other types of participation and therefore recommends that the necessity for a broader evaluation of the influence on involvement and participation on sport, post games. (Literature Review: The impact of major sporting events)

The quality of service has been analyzed in the field of business management for years since the market is more competitive and marketing management has shifted its concentration from inherent performance like production to outward objectives like satisfaction and customers' perception of service quality. But the term service quality has only focused in the field of sport and recreational literature during the last twenty years. SERVQUAL that indicates the conventional disconfirmatory model was considered the initiate attempts in fictionalization of service quality. Irrespective of the fact that it made great contribution in the field of service quality and was famous among service quality researchers in many fields, it is not adequate as a result of its conceptual loopholes generated by the disconfirmatory standard and its practical irrelevance. (A Review of Service Quality in Corporate and Recreational Sport/Fitness Programs)

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Subsequently, the service quality models with more dimensions were adopted. The current models like hierarchical multidimensional model of Brady's of 1997 combined the previous strategies and indicated the intricacies of the construct of service quality perception. Irrespective of the fact that innumerable attempts have been made in the areas of both business management and sport/fitness; the analysis of service quality is even in a condition of ambiguity as a result of the complexity of the construct. No unanimity has been achieved upon the conceptualization or operationalization of the consumers' service quality perceptions. (A Review of Service Quality in Corporate and Recreational Sport/Fitness Programs)

TOPIC: Term Paper on Sports Management the Subject of Assignment

Several theories have been advanced to find out the reasons for occurrence of specialization in the field of sports activities. Novak opined that it has a reference to the play, games and sports as the growing loss of liberty in exchange for enhanced excellence and precision. Therefore, the young athletes who prefer to concentrate give up creative impulsiveness and playful impulses to become progressively inclined towards record-setting and quantitative evaluation. A fascinating bifurcation in the literature acknowledges the significance of specialization to rationalize pediatric performance while confessing that specialization make these athletes vulnerable to physical, psychological, and social damage. For example, Hill and Simons reveal that a particular magnitude of specialization is essential for best possible individual and team performance in sport. (Sport Specialization in Youth: A Literature Review)

Besides, Ericsson and others could discover that an athlete that experiences a skill with enhanced magnitude and duration becomes more efficient and more skilled. But there prevails some anxiety about youth sport specialization like withdrawal/burnout and the excess involvement and expectations of parents and adults in youth sport programs. Unfavorable psychological outcomes as a result of over training have also been discovered. Guttman could find the specialization in the field of youth sports is a representation of highly advanced society. The consequences for a skill in a particular field surpass the common knowledge or skills, giving rise to competition for those specialized roles and to specialization among youth athletes at increasingly earlier ages. With a considerable amount of evidence recommending that elite performers necessitate more than a decade practice to attain the essential proficiency and expertise to perform at the international level, it is not surprising that their parents have their children specialize and at earlier eras.

Unfavorable outcomes from intensive training and competition have been indicated in the lay and medical literature. Unreliable reports and case studies have inadequate reasons for drawing conclusions about the security of intense training or high level competition. Studies have indicated that a heavy stress is laid on competition that largely enhances the inclination of coaches to over-train children with unsuitable volume and intensity in practices/competition. While some researchers reveal that crucial periods may prevail when a sport is skilled the best, scientific evidence does not give rise to the faith that particular skills must be attained and cultured and refined prior to advent of puberty. Besides, the anticipated athletic excellence is hard to foresee since the continuing influences of growth and maturation and the flexibility of learning experiences at varied times and diverse settings. (Sport Specialization in Youth: A Literature Review)

While we transit through the era of professionalism and both international and national sporting culture advances we can start to visualize the sport becoming more and more inattentive with image. As per Ferrand and Pages there is a progressive acknowledge that image has the capacity to persuade all those associated within a sporting organization; its members, even spectators, journalists, sponsors etc. Sporting organization is starting to coordinate their marketing communications to the objective groups of consumers with the same values and beliefs. Sporting organizations tend to have normal objectives: to generate loyalty amongst members, to enhance the number of spectators and to organize their sponsorship relationships. So as to create loyalty and create large fan bases, sporting organization must educate to converse with their target market effectively and efficiently, creating enduring relationship that will be profitable in the future. (Sporting Organizations and their websites)

As per Tajfel and Turner, it is necessary for an individual to attain or to maintain a positive social identity as a member of his or her own group. A membership of a sporting organization or team permits the individuals to fulfill their requirement. It has since been acknowledged therefore, that much of the appeal of sporting organizations and the events they are associated in is that fans can be spotted with the sport and the various parts associated with it. As per Mason, the most remarkable distinction that sport has is in the relationship it generates with the consumer. Whannel indicates that while there are some aesthetic pleasures associated in merely observing a sporting competition, the real outcome comes from detecting with an individual or team as they strive to win. It is the obligation of the sporting organization that confirms the consumer to attain this benefit from their specific sporting offering. Many consumers find out a search for a sense of belonging, a necessity that is in portion attained through sport. Unlike other industries, sports managing are confined in the magnitude to which one can regulate some of the major marketing variables. Probably the most significant element of the marketing mix in a contesting sporting marketplace is the field of promotion.

A study by Coalter in 1999 indicates that policies have the objective at sports development necessary to take account of wider social, economic and cultural effects. He reveals that policy makers might be better to 'go with the flow' instead of trying to 'buck the trends' of patterns of sports involvement, implying that provisions should react to the necessity of the consumers, instead of attempting to encourage involvement in sports that are presently less popular. (Literature Review: The impact of major sporting events) As per Parker, sports and the organizations, associated with them must aim at generating value, increasing brand equity, and finally entailing variations in consumer behavior. Since promotion is considered to be such a significant variable in the communication of sport as a product, the way organizations converse must be implemented successfully. In order to interact with an over-informed society, it is pertinent that sporting organizations make there messages easy to comprehend. In this respect the most successful message will be one that is related to the interaction objective of one. Instead of competing in the narrow, sport-specific markets of the past, sporting organizations presently find themselves vulnerable to an international marketplace where entertainment is of growing significance. With the progress of the Internet, sporting organizations presently have the reach to the audiences worldwide, some of that may have prospective objective in the product that they have to market. The Internet, supported with the ever growing television / media, coverage of sport, has increased and strengthened fan identification by generating a more personal relationship between fan and athlete, in accordance with the player interviews, profiles, interactive capabilities and other features (Sporting Organizations and their websites)

Discussion

The first question is to study the relationship between leadership - mainly transformational leadership and organizational effectiveness. In spite of all the studies have gone through, there is still doubt whether transformational leadership directly helps organizational effectiveness. One of the latest studies was done by Weese and he showed that there was no significant and effective relation between transformational leadership, organizational culture and organizational effectiveness. The earlier studies also showed that there was no direct and significant relationship. The suggestion was instead that it was the subordinates who played an important role in determining the effectiveness of an organization. At the same time, in an earlier article, the same author had pointed out that many scholars on the leadership issue had provided convincing evidence that leadership was very important for… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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