Substance Abuse There Is a Significant Correlation Term Paper

Pages: 13 (3631 words)  ·  Style: APA  ·  Bibliography Sources: 10  ·  Level: College Sophomore  ·  Topic: Sports - Drugs

Substance Abuse

There is a significant correlation between drug addiction and the tendency to commit crime. The United States Bureau of Prisons (BOP) in 1989 developed a comprehensive Substance Abuse treatment program in an attempt to alter both the criminal and substance abuse behaviors of inmates (Substance Abuse Treatment). The BOP reports that 50 institutions that are governed by the bureau have drug abuse treatment programs. All of the inmates that are part of the program are housed together in a separate section of the corrections facility (Substance Abuse Treatment). This program is designed to provide inmates with intensive treatment. In addition to adult corrections facilities the need for substance abuse treatment is also a reality for juvenile corrections facilities. According to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration 37% of the juvenile corrections facilities in America have on site substance abuse treatment.

The research indicates that those treatment programs in which there are high rates of retention and significant lengths of stay (longer than 90 days) are the most effective. The research also seems to indicate aftercare plays a crucial role in ensuring that relapse does not occur.

Introduction

Corrections facilities throughout the world are confronted with the reality of substance abuse problems amongst inmates. Substance abuse is present in both adult and juvenile corrections facilities. As a result, substance abuse treatment is a necessary part of the rehabilitation process as many inmates will eventually leave the corrections facilities and be reintroduced into society. This applied research paper will discuss substance abuse treatment in adult and juvenile corrections facilities.

Purpose

The purpose of this discussion is to determine which treatment programs are most effective in treating inmates with substance abuse problems. The discussion will focus on the treatment programs that are available to both adult and juvenile offenders. The investigation will also focus on why these treatment programs are needed and the efficacy of these programs.

Problem

There is a significant correlation between drug addiction and the tendency to commit crime. For this reason, corrections facilities have to be extremely mindful when attempting to rehabilitate inmates. Facilities have to consider the role that substance abuse and addiction plays in the actions of inmates and the impact of those actions once these individuals are released.

Review of Literature

According to the United States Bureau of Prisons (BOP) in 1989 a comprehensive substance abuse treatment program was developed in an attempt to alter both the criminal and substance abuse behaviors of inmates (Substance Abuse Treatment). The strategy proposed involved drug abuse education and a strong community transition program (Substance Abuse Treatment). The BOP further explains that under certain circumstances substance abuse treatment is mandatory for inmates under certain circumstance (Substance Abuse Treatment). For instance, inmates must participate in such treatment if 1) There is proof in the pre-sentence investigation report that the use of illegal substances contributed to the commission of their crime (Substance Abuse Treatment).

2) They violated supervised release or parole conditions associated with placement in a halfway house or conditions of home confinement based as a result of drug or alcohol use (Substance Abuse Treatment).

3) The sentencing judge suggested that the offender participate in a drug treatment program while in a corrections facility (Substance Abuse Treatment).

The author further explains that as it relates to the drug abuse education course, inmates are given information concerning the social, physical, and psychological affects associated with of abusing drugs and alcohol (Substance Abuse Treatment). Those inmates who are recognized as having an additional need for treatment are encouraged to partake in non-residential or residential substance abuse treatment (Substance Abuse Treatment).

The BOP also reports that 50 institutions that are governed by the bureau have drug abuse treatment programs. All of the inmates that are part of the program are housed together in a separate section of the corrections facility (Substance Abuse Treatment). This program is designed to provide inmates with intensive treatment that takes place five days a week and last half a day. During the rest of the day inmates spend time working on skills training, education and the additional inmate training available at the facility (Substance Abuse Treatment). Once inmates have completed the program they are provided with aftercare services when they are placed back into the general population (Substance Abuse Treatment). There are also residential re-entry centers that are designed to maximize the inmates' ability to carry-over skills; this ensures that they will have an effective transition from the program provided by the corrections facility into the community (Substance Abuse Treatment).

In addition to the mandatory reasons for prisoners to participate in substance abuse treatment programs, in 1994 the Violent Crime Control Act also offered an incentive for inmates who volunteer to participate in the residential drug abuse program (Substance Abuse Treatment). Under this Act non-violent inmates who were diagnosed with a substance use disorder were eligible for up to a year off their sentence (Substance Abuse Treatment). This reduction in sentence time was determined by the Director of the BOP (Substance Abuse Treatment).

The article also reports that the Bureau and National Institute on Drug Abuse funded an analysis of the residential drug treatment program developed by the Bureau (Substance Abuse Treatment). Findings of the research assert that RDAP participants were considerably less likely to be re-offend and less likely to relapse than those that did not participate in the program (Substance Abuse Treatment). The studies also found that the Bureau's RDAPs change the lives of inmates once they are released from custody and return to their communities (Substance Abuse Treatment).

Lemieux (2002) asserts that among those inmates in state prisons with a substance abuse issue about one third of these individuals are enrolled in a drug treatment program. The author also reports that this is a recent phenomenon as it relates to corrections facilities that provide prisoners with such treatment programs. The author asserts that the inclusion of such programs has developed in part to the research concerning Crack cocaine addiction and its effects on prisoners once they reenter society.

The author also explains that substance abuse treatment within the prison system has grown substantially since the 1980's. There are several programs that are now available to inmates including drug education, group counseling, fellowship support groups, assessment, therapeutic communities and fellowship support groups (Lemieux 2002). The author further explains that both Long-term and large-scale evaluations of therapeutic community programs have consistently demonstrated positive client outcomes and considerable cost savings (Lipton, Falkin, & Wexler, 1992; Peters, Kearns, Murrin, Dolente, & May, 1993). According to Nielsen and Scarpitti (1997), the sense of community and strict behavioral guidelines are the two most influential elements of therapeutic community treatment. Therapeutic communities use the community of peers to teach, model, and reinforce the values and behaviors that are necessary for a drug-free lifestyle. Frankel (1989) believed that the therapeutic community serves as a substitute family for its members. The community provides a supportive and caring environment that facilitates client acceptance, understanding, and change (Lemieux 2002)."

The author also explains that the length of time that an inmate undergoes treatment has a significant impact on the outcome of the treatment.

For this reason some corrections facilities offer aftercare and view as a necessary aspect of treatment as it relates to ensuring that inmates maintain sobriety (Lemieux 2002). A prime example of the success of such a program can be found in Amity prison's therapeutic community and aftercare program in California. This program is believed to be instrumental in decreasing recidivism by more than 50% among offenders who had been released for 2 years (Lemieux 2002).

In addition, a Delaware-based program found that offenders who had undergone multistage therapeutic community treatment had lower rates of relapse and recidivism than those who only participated in a prison-based therapeutic community programs (Lemieux 2002).

Juvenile Correction Facilities

In addition to adult corrections facilities the need for substance abuse treatment is also a reality for juvenile corrections facilities. According to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration 37% of the juvenile corrections facilities in America have on site substance abuse treatment.

In addition nearly 20,000 juveniles are receiving substance abuse treatment at these facilities. At the facilities that offer substance abuse treatment, nearly 90% supplied individual counseling or group counseling, and 72% also provided family counseling (Drug and Alcohol Treatment in Juvenile Correctional Facilities, 2002). As it relates to services other than substance abuse treatment, juvenile corrections facilities were more likely to carry out needs assessment, awareness and education programs, and drug testing than to provide inmates with detoxification and self-help programs services (Drug and Alcohol Treatment in Juvenile Correctional Facilities, 2002).

In a survey conducted by the Drug and Alcohol Services Information System (DASIS), 59% of respondents asserted that they carried out some sort of drug testing in the previous year (Drug and Alcohol Treatment in Juvenile Correctional Facilities, 2002). In addition 25% of the facilities asserted that they conducted random tests and 52% of respondents reported that they conducted tests based on… [END OF PREVIEW]

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