Substance Abuse Treatment in Community Corrections Literature Review

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Substance Abuse Treatment in Community Corrections

A one of the newest developments in research literature that has gained much trend and acceptance in the recent past is the idea which postulates that Substance Abuse treatment is more effective when competent issues such as culture and gender-specific considerations are taken into account. VanderWaal et. al (2001), for instance, argues that consideration of ethnicity and culture is vital for the treatment of young addicts or offenders. Juvenile drug courts are also considering the cultural and ethnic backgrounds of the young offenders for the effective rehabilitation and treatments (Drug Court Clearinghouse, 1997)

As a matter of tradition, gender-based issues were never considered in the juvenile justice system, and female juveniles were meant to fit into the programs that were meant for the delinquent boy-child. This was revised after some research indicated that the girls were more difficult to work with than the delinquent boys (Covington, 1988; Bloom and Covington,2001). The reason behind this could be that in most cases, delinquent girls were three times likely to be victims of sexual abuse than the boys. An approximate percentage of 70% of the girls in correctional facilities have been sexually abused making their correction issue intricate (Green et al., 1998).Buy full Download Microsoft Word File paper
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Literature Review on Substance Abuse Treatment in Community Corrections Assignment

Early 1990s saw an increase in the arrests, delinquency and incarcerations of girls than boys (Prescott, 1997). The part of this tendency was because the there was a higher probability of girls being arrested for less violent crimes than boys with the detention lasting up to about five times longer than for boys (Bloom and Covington, 2001). Girls are also observed to be more likely to commit offences related to substance-abuse and to be arrested (Covington, 1998). He also observed that therapeutic Center women lowered the use of amphetamines and heroin when they were followed up but abused more marijuana and cocaine than the women who were in the control group in prisons. Federal Bureau of prisons study showed that out of the 547 women under study, therapeutic centre treatment proved to be ineffective in reducing relapse or recidivism.

Farrell (2000) researched on 41 women who were undergoing a therapeutic center program and who were in transition in a community set-up and when he compared them to 37 women who had in work release programs, he found out that the therapeutic center women showed a lower rate in alcohol relapse but not for the other hard drugs like cocaine and heroin. The therapeutic center groups found it easier to get some social support from their communities but were unlikely to hold down jobs, take care of the children or have meaningful relationships with the other members of the society outside the support network program.

Women in the two groups reported that they felt discriminated against by the larger communities. While there was no difference in the rate of recidivism for the drugs by any group, the responsibility for their children was a significant predictor for women in either group for the sake of staying out of trouble. However, no information was available as to whether Therapeutic Center program provided programming that are gender-specific such as attention that was paid to earlier abusive exposures. Schinka et al. (1999) had reported on the changes in moods and personality characteristics in the women who had been admitted to the therapeutic centers one year later, the women reported fewer depression tendencies and were less avoidant, dependent and self-defeating; however, therapeutic treatment had no effect on their antisocial behavior.

Strickland et al. (2008) asserts that Community Correction is a general term that includes everything from pre-trial diversion up to intermediate punishment. This definition includes any non-incarcerative, but a well supervised manner of dealing with culprits who are facing conviction in the justice system or those who have already been convicted to serve their terms. Parole and Probation are the most utilized forms of community corrections exploited so far, but the term may also connote electronic monitoring, home confinement, work release, day fine programs, curfews, halfway houses, community services, restitution, community-based correctional facilities, and so on. A correction facility qualifies to be called community-based when the state provides the funds and the operation is done by the local communities. The community programs provide residential sessions that are intermediate at system's end and existing between the prison and probation terms.

Community Corrections in Ohio is used to describe a system of specific facilities that are used in the provision of both residential as well as non-residential services to the already convicted offenders. These facilities receive state funds but are based in and operated by local communities. These programs provide an intermediate residential sanction at the front end of the system between probation and custodial sentence, called diversion, and re-integration of the services at the end of the system between parole and prison, often called transition (Burrell and English 2006).

Volkow (2008) says that studies that have been done are consistent in confirming that drug treatment works in that it has a multi-pronged approach; apart from reducing the drug use, the initiative also suppresses criminal behavior and recidivism. For drug-abusing persons, that underwent treatment, it facilitates successful acceptance and re entry into the society.

Grella et al. (1999) asserts that women in the system of criminal justice have very different patterns of relationships as opposed to women who are free and are much more likely to been single at the rate of 46% of them. About 20% are currently married and about a third is either separated or divorced. However, about 70% of these women have at least one minor aged child and most of them usually retain custody of their children while they are incarceration. When it comes to a father being incarcerated, about 90% of their children's time, the mother will take care leading to little disruption in the normal upbringing of the child.

Ross and Lightfoot (1985) clearly point the main aim of detoxification is not rehabilitative but to obtain social and economic goals by getting intoxicated. It defines and gives new meaning to drunkenness as a medical condition that requires attention as opposed to a criminal justice problem that warrants incarceration thereby helps in reducing criminal justice costs to the state. Critics however fault the detoxification process that it lacks rehabilitation and follow-up services that they lead to the revolving door phenomenon (Addiction Research Foundation: 1994). This research evidence shows that detoxification procedures may be helpful in the short period but not a long-term to help individuals to withdraw temporarily from alcohol. It may be considered as a first step towards the long-term treatment to produce along lasting behavior change this may only work in alcohol since most drug users resort to detoxification procedures just to bring down their tolerance levels in order not to use much money but not to exit drugs. The detoxification centers also have a small budget that may disable them from making effective referrals.

The relationship between the drug use and crime rate has driven many state and federal governments into coercive treatment programs within the United States. The National Institute on Drug Abuse as well as the National Institute of Justice have been staunch supporters of coercive treatments since the mid-1970s, merely because there is a connection between drugs and crime. Prevalence of drugs in the streets enhances the criminal careers. A look at the correctional facilities reveal that 83% of the state prisoners had previous records of drug abuse and 57% reported using the drugs in the month before they committed the crimes BJS, 1998) ADAM ( Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program) has reliably reported that between about 50 -- 82% of the males in major urban areas test positive for drugs, confirming beyond the shadow of doubt that drug and crime are related (ADAM annual Report, 1998). Coerced treatment, which was based on the relationship between the drug use and crime, did not escape controversy and as the court used authority to within the criminal justice system to force addicts to community centers. The National Institute on Drug Abuse director, when addressing Federal Bar Association in 1977 proposed setting a urine testing scheme for users those who had undergone probation and parole. That if one failed the test and seemed not to stop using heroine; he would be referred to compulsory drug abuse treatment center for re-incarceration. In spite of this controversy, Leukfield, (1985), supported this concept on the account of the number of crimes that were related to substance abusers.

During the incarceration in the community correction centers, education about adverse and long-term effects of alcohol and drug use should be given to the participants on the pretext that that they lack accurate knowledge about their deviant actions and effects (Marlatt et al., 1986). Although this is debatable, there is proof to insinuate that abusers are unknowledgeable about the negative repercussions of substance or alcohol use compared to non-users ( Senn, 1983). The assumption is that an increase in the awareness of problems that accompany alcohol and drug use may… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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How to Cite "Substance Abuse Treatment in Community Corrections" Literature Review in a Bibliography:

APA Style

Substance Abuse Treatment in Community Corrections.  (2010, December 1).  Retrieved May 30, 2020, from

MLA Format

"Substance Abuse Treatment in Community Corrections."  1 December 2010.  Web.  30 May 2020. <>.

Chicago Style

"Substance Abuse Treatment in Community Corrections."  December 1, 2010.  Accessed May 30, 2020.