Sudan Split Grade Course Term Paper

Pages: 8 (2652 words)  ·  Style: Chicago  ·  Bibliography Sources: 6  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Government  ·  Buy This Paper

SAMPLE EXCERPT:

[. . .] This is because that the imports are to be pain in the U.S. Dollar, making the South currency worthless.

The independence resulted in the Southerners to lose their right to stay in the North. In addition, there is a continuous rage of violence at the north of the border which has ultimately resulted in the huge follow of refugees from the North. This in turn puts a pressue in the already exisiting scare resource and declining economy. Other problems faced by the South after independence include the issue of governing it, as corruption as well as mismanagement is quite high in the government. Not only this, the step towards establishing legislation and the construction of infrastructure has been a slow process. Violence is also a result of several factions being separated from the Sudan Peoples' Liberation Movement (SPLM). There are factions which have either separated form the party in power or are in opposition which are a source of tension for the South. Therefore, the party is itself in a state of struggle along the political and the leadership lines which further complicates the challenge of governance (Macname 2012).

While on one hand the South faces internal conflicts, governing issues and economy trouble, the North has to deal with the problem of Darfur. In the 1980s, Darfur was struck by a severe drough which drove many people out from the Northern Darfur to the South. This resulted in an increase in the land competition. This was worsened with the matter of lond ownership and abolishment of councils which looked into such matters. This challenge continued when in 2003 there were two parties which stood up and fought against the government; the Darfuri Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM). As a result, Janjaweed which was an Arab militia used the tactic of rape, killing and other violent uprisings targeting the civilians as well as the rebels. The government is held responsible for bringing in and using the Janjaweed. This is seen by the fact that in 2009, President Bashir was arrested for being linked to the Janjaweed militia. A number of ceasefire agrrements were signed between the government and the different factions of the SLA. However, a Darfur Peace Agreement was signed in 2011 at the Doha Peace Forum which incorporates the idea of a vice president for Darfur, proposes an administratve plan for it and provides a strategic authority to look over the complete matter.

Several countries congratulated South in getting independence but these countries was silent on the matter of human rights violation in Blue Nile and the Southern Kordofan. UN did not condemn these violations regardless of the fact tat there were several calls by the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights to investigate and look into the matter in order to protect the civilians. Many countries like USA, UK, and Germany were not in favor of president Al Bashir. Side by side there were efforts by several actors in building up the peace keeping process. UN gave several Ethopican peacekeepers the authority for dealing with the issue of Abyei. Despite this, the international actors were not really seen to take up serious actions in protecting the rights of the civilians. The UN peacekeeping mission in Sudan soon expired except its work in Darfur and although the mandate was renewed, it fell short of solving the crisis developing in the border areas of Sudan (Latcher 2012).

As mentioned earlier, regardless of the split between the North and the south, instability between the two especially over the matter of oil continued. It was in 2012 that North Sudan launched an air attack on South. According to the North, the South was arming the militants in the North. However, both the countries started accusing each other for inciting a war. Tensions grew as food shortage increased especially in the South which resulted in a need for the oil revenues (Reeves 2012). Consequently, war took place and the two sides had to reach an agreement under the pressure of U.S., China and the African Union. However, it was only few days that the South accused the North Sudan of violating the provisions of the agreement. War broke and the South captured the disputed oil fields in Heglig. This took over was deemed illegal by the UN and the African Union. Ground and aerial attacks were at rise and the Omar al Bashir was not ready to negotiate. However, the South withdrew from an area but the fight continued. Although 9th July, 2012 marked the first anniversary of the south independence, it was not a day to be celebrated while tensions over the border as well as oil remained unresolved. Due to such a state, if compromise and negotiation between the two states is not achieved by 2nd August, they will face sanctions from the U.N. Security Council. Thus, the UN Mission in South Sudan recently confirmed the attacks by Khartoum on the territory of South Sudan. This took place while negotiations are still taking place in Addis Ababa to resolve the issues between Khartoum and Juba (Reeves 2012).

Thus, the split between the North and South Sudan has completed one whole year. Although it might have been good news and a moment to celebrate for the South, the recent bombings and the unresolved issues are still a threat for the South. The political tension in the South was triggered by the failure of the peace agreement to accept rebel groups apart from the SPLM. Not only this, the government also failed in implementing several provisions of the CPA which has only been successful in diving the wealth as well as power between the SPLM of the South and NCP in North. Although conflicts have been a part of Sudan, it can be resolved through negotiations and the role of international actors and peacekeeping authorities. If border, oil and other issues are properly and fairly addressed, the two states would soon start to flourish in peace.

References

Dagne, Ted. The Republic of South Sudan: Opportunities and Challenges for Africa's Newest Country. CSR Report for Congress: Congressional Research Service, 2011.

Goulty, A. "United We Stand, Divided We Fall: The Sudan's After the Split," Woodrow Wilson International Working Paper No. 2. http://www.wilsoncenter.org/sites/default/files/FINALAFR120228_policy5T_0329_rpt.pdf, (accessed 30th July, 2012).

Jhonson, Douglas. The Root Causes of Sudan's Civil Wars: Peace or Truce (USA: Boydell & Brewer Ltd., 2003).

Latcher, Wolfram. South Sudan: International State Building and its Limitations (Berlin: Stiftung Wissenchaft, 2012).

Macname, T. "The first crack in Africa's map? Secession and Self-Determination after South Sudan," The Brenthrust Foundation Working Paper No.1. http://www.thebrenthurstfoundation.org/files/brenthurst_commisioned_reports/Brenthurst-paper-201201-The-first-crack-in-Africas-map.pdf, (accessed 30th July, 2012).

Manyang, Agok. The Phoenix of South Sudan. (USA: IUniverse, 2012).

Paterno, Steve. "The case for South Sudan independence." Sudan Tribune. 8th August, 2010. Final edition.

Reeves, Eric. "UN Investigators Confirm Khartoum's Renewed Bombing of South Sudan: Implications… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Sudan Split Grade Course.  (2012, August 6).  Retrieved February 20, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/sudan-split-grade-course/8462160

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"Sudan Split Grade Course."  Essaytown.com.  August 6, 2012.  Accessed February 20, 2019.
https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/sudan-split-grade-course/8462160.