Symptomatic Correlation Between Muscle Dysmorphia in Male Dissertation

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¶ … symptomatic correlation between Muscle Dysmorphia in male individuals with OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder) and those same males associated with Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD)

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)


Personality Disorders

Categories of Personality Disorders

122.3 Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder in Men

133.0 Research Questions and Methodology

133.1 Research Questions

It has been found that men have an issue with their appearance, a problem commonly associated with women. An increasing number of men in the society are in most cases concerned with the image of their bodies. Studies have indicated that dissatisfaction with the image of the body is on the increase. Many students from the men's side are encountering a lot of eating disorders for the reason of keeping up with the perfect image of the body of the society. "Dysmorphia" has been a major problem in the population of males (Morgan, 2008). Dysmorphia simply lays its focus on a body image "obsessional preoccupation." A person with such a disorder would see a section of their body as bad looking. This dissertation paper seeks to investigate the causal and symptomatic correlation between Muscle Dysmorphia in male individuals with OCD and those same males associated with OCPD.

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In males this particular type of dysmorphia is referred to as muscle dysmorphia and has become a great issue. Muscle dysmorphia is a consequence of an obsessive compulsive figure or image of the tone of muscle of an individual. Having this disorder in an individual may lead that person to a point of going an extra step in forming the image the individual is looking for. These efforts cause danger to the body of that person like damaging the body mentally as well as physically (Chung, 2001).

2.0 Literature review

2.1 Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

Dissertation on Symptomatic Correlation Between Muscle Dysmorphia in Male Assignment

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder also referred to as OCD is classified as an anxiety disorder. People who have anxiety disorders cannot stop worrying. In Obsessive Compulsive Disorder individuals may have intense repetitive thoughts, images, or impulses that are frightening and seem very unusual. These are what are referred to as obsessions. Some typical obsessions include fear of germs, contamination, and dirt causing harm to yourself or others, also order or symmetry believing the idea that everything must be lined up or in the right position. To reduce anxiety caused by their irrational thoughts people with OCD perform ritualized actions they call rituals. This is known as compulsions that are also irrational and bizarre.

OCD is a mental disease that people think what they don't want to think about repetitiously. They have to make sure things go fine for several times because they feel anxiety, and counting number is hard for them, for they have to count it again and again. And also, they wash themselves often because they feel they are dirty while at the same time they feel anxious about it. This mental disease is appearing on men and should be fixed before they get worse (Morgan, 2008). Scientists still don't know why people get OCD disorders. They say it's from their parents, or mental problems from stress, but they don't know the exact cause for this disorder. Doctors mostly give them medicine, but OCD disorders can relapse if they don't get medicine. As for how the disorder could affect people as they age, we don't really know even for older men and adolescents what the prognosis is, given that some research suggests symptoms might decrease with age, and some other studies show they may get worse (Freeston & Ladouceur, 2003).

Some typical compulsions include checking over and over again on locks, switches, and other appliances, washing hands repeatedly, and constantly counting or arranging items. Performing these acts makes a person with OCD temporarily feel better, but there is no long lasting satisfaction or sense of completion after these acts are done. Usually they believe that something extreme or bad will happen if the ritual is not done. Both obsessions and compulsions are troubling and embarrassing so many people with this condition often hide their fears and rituals but can't stop acting on them (Freeston & Ladouceur, 2003).

Many people with OCD have both obsessions and compulsions but only a few have either one or the other. To some people with this condition they are barely bothered, while others find these obsessions and compulsions to interfere dramatically on their lives. They find their selves spending a large amount of time each day in compulsive actions. Usually out of shame people with OCD avoid seeking treatment (Freeston & Ladouceur, 2003). Considering the fact that they are so good at hiding their problem, a lot of people with OCD don't get the help they need until the behaviors become great habits and are very difficult to change.

A frequent amount of time can pass between the beginning of symptoms and proper diagnosis and treatment. The actions that are occurring are extremely difficult to overcome! For example, one action that occurs is a compulsive behavior, which is something that a person must repeat over and over again. More behaviors include fear of dirt, germs, contamination, a desire to perform violence, and a responsibility for one's safety.

OCD can effectively be treated in a number of different ways ranging from psychotherapy to self-help and medication. The option that is best for a person depends on the person's situation and preferences. A type of therapy called cognitive behavioral therapy has been shown to be the most effective form of therapy in OCD for both adults and children. Cognitive behavioral therapy involves you to retrain your thought patterns and routines so that compulsive behaviors are no longer necessary.

One cognitive behavior therapy approach is called exposure and response prevention (Morgan, 2008). This type of therapy gradually exposes you to a feared object or obsession and teaches you healthy ways to cope with your anxiety. Learning all these new thoughts and techniques may take quite awhile also a lot of effort and practice. Therapy can also be taken individually, in family, or in group sessions. Many men have been found uncomfortable with the form which their bodies take and thus have resulted in activities which will make them have the body image they think the society wants. As a result of this, many men have been obsessed with funny behaviors as the failure to conform to these standards they think the society has set for them is really a humiliating affair.

There has been therefore many claims put forward by scholars of the effect that muscle dysmorphia has contributed to obsessive compulsive disorder in men. Previously it was the women who were thought to have these complications alone. Nowadays, men have found themselves in situations which have proved heard for them to come out of. This is an area where many other people have neglected and may not see the need in addressing the issue considering that it is an issue dealing with men (American Psychiatric Association, 2007). This is where the problem comes in. For a long time in our societies, men have not been given attention on such issues which have been considered as petty. However, there have been noticeable changes in men which need to be addressed concerning these disorders in our contemporary society which prompts the need for action to be taken.

Some psychiatric medications can also help control the obsessions and compulsions in OCD. Most of the time antidepressants are tried first. Anti-depressants can help with the treatment of OCD because it may help with increasing levels of serotonin, which you can be lacking when you have OCD. Some antidepressants that have been effective in treating OCD include Clomipramine (Anafranil), Fluvoxamine (Luvox), Fluvoxamine (Prozac), Paroxetine (Paxil), Sertraline (Zoloft), Citalopram (Celexa). The medication that is best for a person depends on your own person's situation. The primary goal of using medication to treat OCD is to effectively control signs and symptoms at the lowest possible dosage.

2.1.1 Symptoms


Recurrent and persistent thoughts, impulses, or images that are experienced, at some time during the disturbance, as intrusive and inappropriate and that cause marked anxiety or distress

The thoughts, impulses, or images are not simply excessive worries about real-life problems

The person attempts to ignore or suppress such thoughts, impulses, or images, or to neutralize them with some other thought or action. The person recognizes that the obsession thoughts, impulses, or images are a product of his own mind (not imposed from without as in thought insertion)


Repetitive behaviors (e.g., hand washing, ordering, checking) or mental acts (e.g., praying, counting, repeating words silently) that the person feels driven to perform in response to an obsession, or according to rules that must be applied rigidly are what in most cases are compulsive. The behaviors or mental acts are aimed at preventing or reducing distress or preventing some dreaded event or situation; however, these behaviors or mental acts either are not connected in a realistic way with what they are designed to neutralize or prevent or are clearly excessive (American Psychiatric Association,… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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