System Book Report

Pages: 6 (1962 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 4  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Physics

¶ … System Overview

The focus of this project is to design an EPUA (Electrically Powered Ultra-Light Aircraft) for a farmer in the Australia. The problem is to address the problem of tracking the feral animals on the properties. The challenging problems facing the farmers are inability:

to identify and finding stocks,

To monitor the presence of feral animals.

The project will fulfill the following aim and objectives to address the problems:

To design an EPUA (Electrically Powered Ultra-light Aircraft) for a farmer in the Australia principally identify and find stocks,

To monitor the presence of feral animals based on their properties

Electrically Powered Ultra-light Aircraft Project

Company Name: Farmer Limited

Workshop Date: November 18, 2013

Mission Definition:

Farmer Limited is to have 24-hour functional EPUA that will be available to track the feral animals as well as identify the stocks.

To design electrically powered ultra light aircraft principally assisting farmers to find stock and monitor the presence of feral animals.

Scenario Building Template

Technically, the project will be useful in the remote area of Australia for the farmers, which will solve the problem facing the famers. The ultra-light aircraft will be run by electric motor fueled by battery. The scenario actors are farmers; however, there may still be opponents to the project.

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Book Report on System Overview the Focus of Assignment

Financial resources are one of the threats to the project. The farmers need adequate financial resources to build the project. Since this is a custom-built project, the farmer may face challenges to find an aircraft company that will be able to build EPUA and meet the stakeholders' requirements as being revealed in the Fig 1. In the Fig l, the proposed system illustrates the interaction between the building blocks revealing the mission statement and system requirements. The basis is to provide the process of mission statement to the system architecture. The mission statement of the project is:

To design electrically powered ultra light aircraft principally assisting farmers to find stock and monitor the presence of feral animals.

Figure 1. System Scenario Chart

3. Requirements

The unique requirement ID number for the projects is

DI-MGT-81903 I. The requirement will follow the enterprise identifier (EID) that will build the unique project for the stakeholders.

Applicable Documents

The project will be marked with the supplier and manufacturer ID, which will be applicable to the document.

Performance characteristics

The system will be powered and recharged with 50Hz, 230v, single power phase and having ability to have flight time for minimum of 1 hour. The system should be able to be transported with towed trailer of 1.8 meters wide and 2.4 long. More importantly, the system should have a disassembly time of less than 15 minutes after flight. Finally, a single person should be in charge of all activities associated with flight preparations, post-flight preparation that include trailer loading.

Key Requirements

The key requirements of the electrical powered ultra-light aircraft to meet the needs of the stakeholders are as follows:


18 HP,

90% efficient at cruise

Low RPM,

High torque unit.

26 pounds.

Max Thrust

Direct Drive - 53" Prop,

140 lbs, combined with reduction drive 1800 RPM,

63" Prop 155 lbs.


Pulse Width Modulation having electronic speed control to enhance highest efficiency.

Battery Packs

Custom built lithium-ion polymer designed to be used for highest capacity per weight (power density),

High discharge rate cells to be used for full power takeoff and climb.

5.6kwh capacity

Battery weight 47 kg

Flight Duration

Minimum of one hour

Cruise speed

90 km/h


Trike with motor, gauges and controller

85 lbs (39 kg)

Battery pack (5.6kwh)

78 lbs (35 kg)

Stratus wing

84 lbs (38 kg)

Part 103 ultra light

247 lbs (112 kg)


the operation of the system is automatic,

Microcontroller Utilization

provides reduced cost for built-in capabilities,

A/D converter, serial communication, high speed;

Serial communication

Providing a flexible and easy way to connect a lot of data storage or computer devices

Ability to connect PCs, scientific, calculators, PDAs, data links and wireless modems,

Computer devices -- provide permanent memory storage to control the data acquisition board and acquire data.

Other requirements:

Nearly silent electric motor,

ultra quiet, slow turning propeller

Sturdy Electric Motor,

Quiet Flying Enjoyment

No Costly Overhauls

No vibration

No Pollution

Long lasting batteries to be used for many years of flying.

There will be green packaging that will be sustainable and free of carbon.

Functional Analysis & Evaluation

The purpose of the function analysis is to present the functional decomposition of the system in term of its functional terms using Functional Flow Block Diagram. Functional analysis of this project is a fundamental tool to define the architectures and define new concepts of the project. (Andrade de Oliveira, 2005). The Fig 2 provides the decomposition diagram. Analysis is used to refine the project the functional requirements, map the physical component of the proposal to guarantee that the requested components are put in place, and understand the relationships of the project's components. (Viola, Corpino, Fioriti, et al.2011, Leonard, 1999).

The proposed electrically powered ultra light airplane will have motor and batteries. Equally important, the ultra flight aircraft will have controller as well as battery management system (BMS) and the airframe for the aircraft need. The proposed project also provides the Functional Analysis of the battery, motor, out runners, Controllers, Airframes, Battery Management Systems, and Sidebar.

Batteries and Fuel Cells

Batteries are the important source of electrical energy for the proposed ultra light aircraft. The energy density is the most important for the project, and the battery is the determining factor of energy density. To ensure that the project is ultra light, energy density is very critical, and lithium-ion batteries will be better for the proposal. However, the type of battery that will be used for the project is Lithium-Polymer (LiPo) cells that deliver the greatest energy density. Typically, the battery pack (5.6kwh) that would be used for the project weighs 35.5kg.The table below compares the costs of different battery.

Based on the analysis of the battery; the project will select a lithium-polymer pack 5.6kwh battery that costs $8,500. Moreover, the Battery Park will include a large lithium-polymer custom high power battery charger pack 5.6 kWh that costs $895.

Fig 2: System Decomposition Diagram


The project will use a controller with Pulse Width Modulation having electronic speed control to achieve highest efficiency. The controller will assist in changing the battery efficiency, and protect the batteries and motor. Typically, the controller turns on and off the voltage by 15,000 times per second or 15 kilohertz (kHz). Thus, the project will be built with the custom controllers using electronically speed control to achieve highest efficiency for Pulse Width Modulation.

The model selection of controller is evaluated with their A/D Converter. The Controller with FLASH memory is considered for their adaptability. The proposal chooses the PIC16F877A microcontroller based on the following assumption that:

It is easily available in the local market;

Availability of bibliography.


Essentially, off - the -shelves motors are not good for ultra light electric aircraft. Moreover, motors used for electric cars are not good for ultra light aircraft, and the motors for electric cars are too heavy. Similarly, the industrial motor is too heavy and model airplane motors are too small. The proposed Ultra aircraft will have 18 H.P. High Torque having 99% efficiency.

Battery Management Systems

The ultra light aircraft project will have a battery management system (BMS) that will assist in controlling the energy flow from the batteries, which keep the temperature in a balance state. The battery management systems will prevent the energy to leave the motor, which will prevent the motor from stop working. Moreover, the battery management systems will assist that the energy in the batteries to be balanced to ensure that the motors are not damaged.


Cost is very important in the project because it lies on the factors, which the stakeholders accept, or reject the proposal. One of the important aspects of the proposal is that the farmers only require the low-cost electrically powered ultra-light aircraft. The paper compares the cost of two ultra-light aircraft, and chooses the one that best fit for the farmers.

5. Synthesis of Candidate Solutions

Electric Aircraft Corporation is one of the major companies that manufacture the ultra-light aircraft, and engine package for the aircraft that weighs 26 lbs with 90% efficiency. The battery of the aircraft consists of two lithium-polymer battery packs that deliver one hour 30 minutes flying application. The appendix 1 provides the picture of the aircraft. The overall cost of the complete system is $20,990.00 based on the cost decomposition below:

Electric Aircraft Corporation

ELECTRAFLYER TRIKE (ultra-light aircraft)


trike installation of electric propulsion system,

standard direct drive measure 52" wood propeller, and battery tray



Northwing Stratus



Large lithium-polymer pack of 5.6kwh



custom high power charger consist of lithium ion charge curve with -auto shutoff



motor, electronic controller, power dial and switch, fuse, connectors, ammeter… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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APA Style

System.  (2013, November 12).  Retrieved February 20, 2020, from

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"System."  12 November 2013.  Web.  20 February 2020. <>.

Chicago Style

"System."  November 12, 2013.  Accessed February 20, 2020.