Tattoo Views on Men and Women Article Critique

Pages: 5 (1465 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 2  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Health - Nursing

Body Art Among Men and Women -- Literature Review

Armstrong, M., Roberts, a., Owen, D., & Koch, J. (2004). "Toward building a composite of college student influences with body art." Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing, 27(4), 277-295.

The purpose of the study was to investigate various factors in relation to intimate body piercings, such as those of the genitalia and nipples. More specifically, the study was designed to determine relative rates of health-related consequences corresponding to intimate body piercings. In that regard, there were three research questions: (1) whether there are demographic differences between individuals who choose to obtain body piercings and those who do not; (2) what factors are typically involved in the decision to obtain body piercings; and (3) whether there are any negative health consequences associated with body piercings. By inference, the hypotheses corresponding to those research questions are: (1) that there are specific identifiable demographic factors common to those who decide to obtain body piercings; (2) that there are specific identifiable factors involved in the decision to obtain body piercings; and (3) that body piercings are associated with negative health consequences.

Experimental Design and Method and Limitations

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The study relied on a convenience and network sampling of individuals with intimate body piercings in conjunction with self-reported descriptions of the factors associated with their reasons for obtaining them, self-reported degrees of satisfaction with their choice, and self-reported health-related consequences associated with their intimate body piercings. More specifically, the study solicited participants through advertisements published in mainstream newspapers and in free "alternative" news publication directing those interested in participating in the study to call an 800 telephone number for information on participating in the study.

Article Critique on Tattoo Views on Men and Women Assignment

The research tool used to collect data consisted of a questionnaire distributed to participants. That questionnaire comprised three different sets of questions: (1) those questions asked of all participants; (2) those questions asked only of participants with genital piercings; and (3) those questions asked only of participants with both nipple piercings and genital piercings.

The most significant limitations of the study were (1) that the nature of the subject matter made random sampling impossible; and (2) that it relied exclusively on self-reported data. More specifically, random sampling was impossible because the nature of the subject matter of the study (i.e. intimate body piercings) makes it impossible to identify potential participants among the general population. Also, self-reported health information is considerably less accurate than clinically reported health information. In addition to inaccuracy, self-reported healthcare-related information is also subject to deliberate manipulation or concealment arising from personal embarrassment.

Another significant potential limitation of the study is that it is subject to a sampling bias by virtue of the fact that individuals with distinctly negative responses to or experiences with their piercings tend to have them removed. Likewise, it is expected that those inclined to participate in such a study are more likely to have positive experiences.


The study determined that individuals who choose to obtain intimate body piercings are not different demographically from the general population; more importantly, they are not necessarily more likely to be socially deviant in any of the ways often described in anecdotal sociological literature. Those who choose to obtain intimate body piercings tend to deliberate for as long as 2 years before doing so, with females generally taking longer to decide than males.

The study also determined that the decision to obtain intimate body piercings is most often attributable to internal rather than external cues. In that regard, the most frequently-cited reasons were self-expression and enhancement of sexual sensation rather than emulation of other individuals or conformity with practices modeled by other individuals or groups. The vast majority of those with intimate body piercings do not regret their choice and those who do express regret are most likely to have both nipple and genital piercings. Finally, infection rates were somewhat higher than expected based on prior literature and mainly reported in connection with nipple piercing and individuals experiencing negative health consequences associated with their piercings are more likely to solicit advice from others with piercings and professional piercers rather than from certified medical personnel.

Implications for Practical Applications and Future Research

The most significant implications for nursing were: (1) that those with intimate body piercings are not substantially different demographically or characteristically from other patients; (2) the fact that those with piercings tend to solicit medical advice from friends rather than… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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How to Cite "Tattoo Views on Men and Women" Article Critique in a Bibliography:

APA Style

Tattoo Views on Men and Women.  (2010, June 4).  Retrieved June 3, 2020, from

MLA Format

"Tattoo Views on Men and Women."  4 June 2010.  Web.  3 June 2020. <>.

Chicago Style

"Tattoo Views on Men and Women."  June 4, 2010.  Accessed June 3, 2020.