Term Paper: Taylorism' / 'Scientific Management

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[. . .] However, her program still did not include rewards for a job well done.

Gantt introduced an organization chart, which set specific goals and broke them down into time frames. He introduced the idea of employee incentives for reaching the desired goal. This made the goals concrete. Gantt introduced the idea of incentive programs for reaching goals. This chart helped with time management and motivation as the employees could see their progress as they neared the end of a task.

Now let us compare the Human Relations Movement Theorists of the 1920-1930s to the Classical Theories. The Human Relationists focused more on the emotions that drive worker motivation, with less emphasis on performance and more on motivation. The Human Relationists are a stark contrast to the Classical Theorists are almost complete opposites in theory and execution. George Elton Mayo conducted experiment at the General Electric Hawthorne Plant and found that social classes at work caused alienation and this severely decreased their desire to work.

Maslow identified a hierarchy of needs, which help to determine how a person will act in a given situation based on the severity of his need. This was not even considered in Taylor to be a possibility for a motivational factor. Maslow takes into account that different people will be motivated by different things depending on how many of their basic needs have already been met. Taylor believes that everyone is motivated the same manner by the same thing, money. Maslow's heirarchy of needs is self-rewarding based on each individual person's needs.

The work of Roethlisberger and Dickson focuses on group dynamics in the work place and all of the relationships involved. The only similarity between this study and the studies conducted by Taylor, were that of methodology. They both used small sample groups and therefore the results may not apply to other situations. It is difficult to generalize the results to the population at large.

Herzberg's Two Factors Theory considers two factors in measuring job satisfaction and output. In this case hygiene stands for the work environment and motivation is what people actually do on the job. Herzberg found that the working environment does have an effect on how a person performs on the job. A person must feel safe and secure in order to have the most motivation on the job. He also found that environmental factors in the workplace have an effect on how the group performs as a whole. Taylor only concentrated on the individual, and not on the group as a whole. Taylor did not consider environment, only productivity and efficiency.

Groups Dynamics in the 1940s emphasized the importance of the role of individuals in decision making and its effects on both e the group and individuals. It was found that individuals perform better when they are a part of the decision making process. This is a contrast to a Bureaucracy, where a formal social hierarchy exists and the workers have virtually no access to the decision making process. This is more in line with Taylorism and the classical theorists in that it emphasized order, a formal system, rationality, and uniformity for equitable treatment in management.

McGregor developed the X and Y theory. He believed that people were either lazy or independently motivated. He found that neither group was correct. Taylorism reflects the X side of McGregor in that it has a rather negative view of workers and worker motivation.

Decision Theory was proposed in the 1960s and stated that people "Satisfice" when they make decisions. They may satisfice by making a decision that reaps the most benefit, carries the least amount of risk, or will help them to avoid confrontation. The Socio-technical schools are a continuation of the Decision Theory. The Socio-technical school stemmed from work at the General Electric Hawthorne Plant. Emery and Trist first introduced them to describe the complex nature of human and machines working together. In this view, social and technological components are dependent upon one another. In this theory the management style is not the same for any organization, but must be adapted to the particular work environment. The environmental and Technical Systems theories were very similar to the Socio-Technical school of thought. It studied the effectiveness of a combination of mechanical and environmental systems in specific environments.

The 1970s brought the systems approach theorists. This theory approached work groups as dynamic and open. It described the work group as a constant interaction between elements, both within and outside the group. The group operated somewhat like a computer with inputs, outputs and feedback. In this theory systems also seek to reach equilibrium.

The Systems approach makes the organization seem mechanical and according to that theory the system should work in any situation and eventually reach a happy equilibrium. It makes the organization seem unable to mold to its environment. The Contingency theorists of the 1980s did not agree with the "one size fits all approach to management. They believed that management styles needed to change to fit each and every individual company. It is very similar to the Socio-technical approach in that the management style is malleable depending on the situation.

Lawrence & Lorsch (1967) were of the Systems approach age, but of the Contingency Theory Mindset. They believed that management had to possess the ability to adapt to the situation. They interrelated and interdependent with the formal organization, the tasks to be accomplished the personalities of other individuals, and the unwritten norms of behavior. They believed that as a system becomes larger, it must divide itself into parts. An organization must be able to adapt to what goes on outside its own walls. This is one advantage to the Contingency theory. Classical theories such as Taylorism do not have this ability to adapt and therefore must completely re-evaluate when situations change. Lawrence and Lorsch believe that a grouped divides into specialized functional groups, which are highly specialized.

Japanese workers have one of the highest degrees of satisfaction in the entire world and are often lifetime employees. In 1981, William Ouchi identified and discussed the characteristics of the Japanese companies that produce the highest levels of employee commitment, motivation and productivity. Unlike other companies around the world. The employee receives evaluation and feedback on a regular basis. The responsibility for good performance is a group effort and dies not lie solely on the individual. Japanese employees are guaranteed a position for life. This increases both their security and commitment. As others have discovered, security is a key factor in reducing stress and boosting motivation. Employees do not specialize in one particular skill are, but learn many tasks over time and increase their knowledge. In this way the Japanese system is similar to Taylorism, in the concept of ongoing employee education. Japanese companies are concerned about their employee's lives both on and off the job. According to Ouchi, these types of organizations have more stable employment, higher productivity, and high employee morale and satisfaction.

Upon studying the change in philosophy that has occurred in management styles since the beginning of this century, it should be obvious that several paradigm shifts have occurred. At the beginning of the century, the classical theorists sought to improve production at the expense of almost everything else. Taylorism was rigid and unswerving. Although Taylor did conduct studies on worker environmental issues, it was not for the humanitarian aspects of the environment, but rather as they related to production,

In the 1930s, management began to realize that money was not the key motivator in keeping employees happy and productive. They began examining the human side of the equation. They found that environmental factors did have an effect on employee motivation and performance. They found that job satisfaction and a degree of satisfaction played a part in a productive worker.

All of the other theories are combinations of these two main shifts in thought. Prior to the turn of the century, people had to work long hours, at very hard labor. Then management began to see the ill effects of this and devise ways to accomplish more in less time, giving the employee more free time to refresh before the next work day. However, conditions at work still did not meet the emotional needs of the employee. Then researchers began looking at the human elements and catering to those needs. Workers were not happy and more productive at work. There have been many advances in organization al psychology since the turn of the century and still many more to come, as we learn more and more about what motivates us to do what we do best.

Most studies have been conducted in reference to a production environment. However the call center is a good environment to test the various management strategies and models. The Call Centre environment has a measurable output in number of calls and efficiency.… [END OF PREVIEW]

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