Term Paper: Teacher Behavior/Class Culture Avoiding Seeking

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[. . .] "In academic settings, research has shown that the need for help is most threatening to low-achieving students," (96). Unfortunately, the students who need to seek help are not seeking it and therefore the problem is significant enough to warrant attention by educational researchers. Finally, the authors state on page 99, the "findings are troubling but provide insight as to which students in the classroom do not seek help when they need it."

4. Is there a review of the literature? If so, is it relevant?

This article is fundamentally a literature review. Therefore, the authors take great care to outline the studies that relate to or pertain to their area of interest. Their goal is to offer a clear vision for future research and support it through rationales based on prior research. All the studies they cite are relevant to one or another of the hypotheses at hand.

The literature review begins in earnest on page 95, when the authors begin to analyze the help-seeking process in general and note that some researchers, like Dillon, have found that there are several stages to the help-seeking process. Furthermore, Ryan, et. al note that prior research shows that there are two main reasons why students do not seek help: One is that they deem help-seeking to be unfeasible or impractical for various reasons, and second is psychosocial concerns such as the desire for autonomy and a potential threat to their sense of competence. Finally, Ryan, et. al. state that their article "focused on students' reluctance to seek help because of competence concerns," (95).

The authors found that both competence and social goal-orientations are related to help-seeking behaviors. "These findings parallel the findings for perceptions of social competence and reinforce the proposition that social motivational constructs are linked to help seeking," (99). The literature also shows that when GPA and other indicators of academic performance decrease, in conjunction with an increase in competence concerns, then students are at a particularly high risk for help avoidance.

5. How clearly are the hypotheses stated?

Hypotheses are stated explicitly. For instance, "In our work, we have investigated how students' motivational characteristics, as well as classroom contextual characteristics, related to adolescents' decision to avoid seeking help with their academic work," (94). The remainder of the article is focused on providing support and clarification for this hypothesis.

Ancillary hypotheses include one stated on page 94: "The decision by students to not get help represents an intentional goal-directed act to cease or avoid engagement." This statement is related to all the research focusing on performance or social status goal-orientation, both of which are positively correlated with avoidance of help-seeking behavior.

6. Are operational definitions provided?

Operational definitions are clearly provided in the article. First, the authors define "avoidance of help seeking" as "instances when students know that they need help but do not seek it," (94). Next, the authors define mastery- and performance- goal orientations, which are "disparate reasons for involvement and different conceptions of success" that are linked to help-seeking (97). Other operational definitions such as social-goal orientation, are also provided and supported by literature.

7. Is the procedure or method used to attack and answer the problem fully and completely described?

The current article is a literature review and as such does not constitute a laboratory report. However, the authors use their literature review and research to present to the academic community a variety of fruitful avenues for future research. Ryan, et. al do not go into detail about the methods or procedures used by researchers, because such details would be unnecessary in a literature review.

8. Are there any probable sources of error that might influence the results of the study? If so, have they been controlled?

There are no obvious sources of error that could influence the results of this literature review, other than the fact that there may be studies that counter the hypothesis that were not included in the review.

9. Were statistical techniques used to analyze the data?

10. How clearly are the results presented?

The results or conclusions are clearly presented and summarized throughout the article, which is like a meta-analysis of the research.

11. Any suggestions for developing further research on the topic.

The main purpose for this article was to offer suggestions for developing future research. The authors summarize these ideas into three main categories:… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Teacher Behavior/Class Culture Avoiding Seeking.  (2004, June 11).  Retrieved April 19, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/teacher-behavior-class-culture-avoiding/3811091

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"Teacher Behavior/Class Culture Avoiding Seeking."  11 June 2004.  Web.  19 April 2019. <https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/teacher-behavior-class-culture-avoiding/3811091>.

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"Teacher Behavior/Class Culture Avoiding Seeking."  Essaytown.com.  June 11, 2004.  Accessed April 19, 2019.