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Teaching Adults in Today's SocietyCapstone Project

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TRAINING & ADULT LEARNING

Training and learning when it comes to adults has a lot of layers, iterations and theories as it relates to its practice. Whether it be training men vs. women, the younger adults vs. The older adults, life and death skills such as police training, training in developed countries vs. training in developing continents or countries like Arifica, retention of such learning or training, the form in which the training manifests, the mind power and biology theories that underpin and so forth, there are a lot of considerations and calculations that must be taken into proper account.

Training & Adult Learning

As noted in the abstract, the subject of adult learning and/or training takes on many forms. Of course, the two most common associations that can probably be drawn are that of formal education like at college and such as well as training and learning at work. This capstone project will deign to cover the triumphs, travails and lessons that could and should be learned when it comes to the training and learning of adults. To be sure, there are many dimensions and realms of the subject that could be touched upon and this report will cover many of them. The questions and topics to be answered and explored will include the following:

Training and learning and how it is retained over time based on the timing of the training, how often it happens, and so forth.

The efficacy and overall outcomes of self-directed and self-started learning opportunities

Learning and training in terms of new economic contexts. A recent example would be the new "green economy."

Differences in adult learning based on gender. For example, women's attitudes towards computers and computer literacy is just one subject related to training and learning that has been explored

Barriers and policy matters that can encourage or hinder the practice of "e-learning."

The learning challenges and methods relating to old adults as compared to the millennials, Gen-Y or even Gen-X.

Training and learning in a corporate sector context up to and including the online training of new or current workforce members

Online teaching for adults of more basic and very involved subjects such as learning a new language or learning new words within a prior-known language

Adult training and learning related to knowledge sector and high-end fields such as ophthalmology, dentistry and so forth

Lifelong learning among adults in a modern (i.e. twenty-first century) context as compared to what was used in the 1990's and before

The subject of neuroscience when it comes to teaching adult learners and the implications that this has on educational policy-making at the federal, state and local levels

The subjects of cognitive absorption and group learning behavior and how they affect learning in an individual context

Training in the general public health sphere and the implications this has for healthcare and national outcomes in the years, decades and generations to come.

Adult learning in a diversity and multi-cultural context. This is important because culture and societal structure has a huge effect on learning and the aims of the people involved, especially among adults.

The general transformation process between professional development into professional learning

Training and learning when it comes to things like on-the-job training with the police and other emergency services personnel that behave and function in a field-based environment rather than a controlled and docile classroom.

Training and learning when it comes to preparing teachers and other educational personnel for the teaching and development of children students in a classroom or other environment

Learning and leadership in a rural teaching setting as compared to that of an urban or suburban setting

Continuous education for knowledge sector people other than the ones mentioned before and the social settings involved (e.g. engineers in China)

The development and bringing up of critical thinking skills and how it affects the creation of safety programs for children

The importance of proper training and learning facets in developing countries or areas like in Africa

Training of a holistic fashion with the example used being a voice training course. The participants of the study will be covered

The overall relationship between intelligence and training gains. Of course, there is much said about intelligence affecting training efficacy with that person and vice versa

Policy and other barriers that hinder e-learning in areas of the world other than the West. One country assessed is Taiwan.

Literature Review

The first source in this literature review covers the effects of training structure and the passage of time on trained and derived performance. One of the main conclusions from that study was that "results from both experiments indicate that the lack of stimulus equivalence performance is not commonly caused by a breakdown of trained relations at the time of the stimulus equivalence test" (Eilifsen & Arntzen, 2015). As part of their context, they note that several studies "have shown that the probability of equivalence class formation is lowing following conditional discrimination establishment with the LS training structured, compared to the other two training structures" (Eilifsen & Arntzen, 2015). The study also says that it is "reasonable" to presume that the differential effects of whatever training structure is being used should exert influence on both directly trained and derived performance metrics over time. This particular study used about twenty students that ranged in age from nineteen to thirty-three years old. All of the students were from Oslo and Akershus University College, which would be in Norway, just to give the national context of the conclusions and the study above (Eilifsen & Arntzen, 2015).

The next study talks about "self-directed" training. Specifically, the study talks about the training of staff on technology matters in a library vocational setting. They note that the training has evolved into "Librarian 2.0" training because that is the new frontier of training. Further, millennial-age students expect that training to be in that form. As stated by the study, "undergraduates, as members of the Millennial Generation, are proficient in Web 2.0 technology and expect to apply these technologies to their coursework -- including scholarly research" (Quinney, Smith & Galbraith, 2010). Harold B. Lee Library of Brigham Young University (HBLL and BYU, respectively) was not the first library/university to notice the gap that exists between the students and the librarians/administrators. For example, it is noted that nearly half (42%) of the students on the campus had a blog of some sort. At the same time, barely a fourth (26%) of the staff and faculty could say the same. Further, nearly three fourths of the students (74%) stated that they belonged to a social network (e.g. Facebook) while only three in ten (30%) of faculty said the same. This obvious chasm has led to a rather noticeable gap in what students are expecting from their educational organizations and frameworks and what they are actually getting from the same. Further, the students of today are masters of what is commonly referred to as "informal" learning whereas modern-day administrators and educational leaders are more focused on what is delivered and taught in more formal educational settings. Beyond that, many younger students are perfectly fine taking a self-directed approach to learning whereas the curriculums and lesson plans currently being used in actual classrooms are designed to be heavily structured and led by a facilitator (Quinney, Smith & Galbraith, 2010).

As an extension of what is happening at BYU and colleges like it, much the same thing is happening with certain parts of the United States economy and the economies of other countries. For example, there is the "green jobs" part of the United States and other countries. Just as with the BYU example, the learning constructs and frameworks that exist in the green economy sphere are behind the curve and there is the desire to update and upgrade those frameworks. Of course, the green economy is still very much in its infancy and finding sustainable jobs for the future in that economy is not always easy. It is deemed a huge part of battling that to focus on adult learning and catering the teaching scenarios to the new age in which we inhabit. Indeed, the study notes that "the primary goal of the training was to prepare workers for, and to place them into, sustainable wage jobs in the green economy (Wagner, 2013). In the eyes of many, this is a paradigm and a situation where the government is not keeping up with the needs and the frameworks that are needed for this new realm of the economy. For example, they note that there was the Energy Security and Independence Act of 2007 that was passed but that it was never funded. They also make reference to the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, which was the first main economic stimulus bill that was passed after the Great Recession started, that did a much better of job of funding green initiatives. In short, Wagner notes that the government has to provide assistance when it comes to new economic directions… [END OF PREVIEW]

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