Teaching on the Cognitive Learning of Adult Term Paper

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¶ … Teaching on the Cognitive Learning of Adult Kidney Transplant Recipients

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of individual and group teaching on the cognitive learning of adult kidney transplant recipients on an inpatient transplant unit.

Kidney transplant recipients have an abundance of learning needs after receiving their transplants. Patient education is a crucial aspect of the transplant nurse's role. Transplant recipients must learn follow-up instructions, signs of rejection and infection, medications and their side effects, urine testing procedures, and dietary and lifestyle modifications in order to ensure transplant viability and increased quality of life. It is important that the most effective method is used to teach this critical information. Patient education is widely documented in the literature, however little is known about the effects of individual and group teaching on the cognitive learning of adult kidney transplant recipients.

Design. A true experimental design.

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Methods. The research will take place in a large east coast teaching hospital in the adult kidney transplant unit. A total of 100 participants will be randomly assigned to the experimental individual teaching sessions or the control group that will attend group teaching sessions. Each subject in both groups will take the Evaluation of Transplant Teaching Test prior to the onset of the study and again 48 hours prior to discharge from the hospital. The experimental and control groups will receive the same postoperative teaching using verbal, visual, and written literature by an RN. The experimental group will attend scheduled group teaching sessions in the patients' solarium. A paired t-test will be used to analyze the collected data. The results of the study will be statistically significant at the.05 level.

Results. The findings will indicate there will be an increase in cognitive learning from individual patient teaching compared to group teaching in postoperative adult kidney transplant recipients.

Term Paper on Teaching on the Cognitive Learning of Adult Assignment

Conclusion. Individual patient teaching in adult postoperative kidney transplant recipient patients results in increased cognitive learning.

Relevance to clinical practice. As indicated by the results of this study, individual patient teaching in the postoperative adult kidney transplant patient is superior to group teaching in the adult kidney transplant patient. The patient will be able to maximize organ vitality and improve overall quality of life.

CHAPTER I: THE PROBLEM

Introduction

Problem Statement

Definition of Terms

Inclusion Criteria

Assumptions

Significance of Study

CHAPTER II: REVIEW of the LITERATURE

Literature Review Related to an Overview of Renal Failure

Definition and Types of Renal Failure

Chronic Kidney Disease

Treatment Options

Dialysis vs. Transplantation

Literature Review Related to Renal Transplantation

Graft Survival

Quality of Life

Organ Rejection

Economic Outcomes

Literature Review Related to Transplant Teaching in Post-Op Patients

Individual Teaching in Renal Postoperative Patients

Group Teaching in Renal Postoperative Patients

Literature Review Related to Emotional Acceptance of Chronic Illness

Theoretical Framework: Dorothea Orem's Theory of Self-Care

Summary

CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY

Design

Setting

Selection of Participants

Instrumentation

Data Collection Procedure

Data Analysis

REFERENCES

WHAT IS the EFFECT of the METHOD of TEACHING on the COGNITIVE LEARNING of ADULT KIDNEY TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS?

CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM

Introduction

The issue of chronic renal failure is one that has been misunderstood for many years. There are many individuals that study it and discuss how significant it is, and there are others that do not realize the seriousness of the issue. Chronic renal failure is a serious issue. However, there are treatments available for it and there are many different thoughts and theories as to what causes it in some people and not others, and how it should be handled when it does occur so that the patient can get the maximum amount of benefit from the treatment or treatments that are offered to him or her. For a study such as this one, it is important to discuss these treatments.

Problem Statement

The main problem statement for this study is designed to address whether group learning or individual learning is the best choice when it comes to teaching patients how they must care for themselves when they have kidney failure. For purposes of this study, care is limited to after the individuals have been through a kidney transplant.

Definition of Terms

Group learning - Individuals are taught something new or given instructions in a group setting.

Individual learning - Individuals are taught something new or given instructions in a one-on-one atmosphere.

Inclusion Criteria

In order to be eligible for this particular study, the patients must:

Be either a first time cadaveric or first time living related recipient of a kidney transplant.

Be between 18 and 64 years of age and possess at least a high school education.

Have a functioning renal allograft.

Be both oriented and alert mentally.

Assumptions

Individuals that have had kidney transplants are able to comprehend what they are taught, provided the teaching methods are effective.

Having a teaching methods that is structured helps to promote information, and this also encourages independent functioning, compliance with what is needed for treatment, and self-care.

Patients that are properly informed and included in the process of their own education are less likely to be readmitted to the hospital, and if they are their stays are not as long.

A better knowledge of what is wrong and what must be done to help make it better is generally associated with having a higher level of patient compliance.

Significance of Study

Being successful with a renal transplant allows the recipient of the kidney to function well without the need for continued hemodialysis. However, there are postoperative issues that must be addressed and a standard of care must be accepted and continuously undertaken in order for the patient to stay as healthy as possible. New knowledge of care, health problems, diet, and many other issues must be addressed for the individual to have a complete understanding of how best to remain healthy after a kidney transplant.

Many factors are available that actually effect the health outcome of individuals that have received a new kidney from a donor.

The fact that a transplant recipient must take medication for the rest of his or her life means that there is a higher chance of specific medical problems. While this increased risk cannot be avoided, there are things that can be done in order to help minimize these particular risks. Patients must be informed, however, so that they can continue to maintain a high standard of self-care as much as possible. They also need to be aware of what problems they might face so that they can see their doctor if issues arise. Professional nurses are the ones that have the responsibility of patient education.

CHAPTER II

REVIEW of the LITERATURE

Literature Review Related to an Overview of Renal Failure

Chronic renal failure, also sometimes called chronic kidney failure, is a serious disease that can be fatal if not treated, and can lead to many other significant health problems as well. The disease progresses slowly, and can take months or years before it gets to the point where it is noticed, but there are other changes in the body that can be seen earlier on, if they are being looked for, and these changes can make physicians aware of the problem so that it can be treated as early as possible (Vernon & Pfeifer, 2003).

If the disease progresses far enough, it is known as end-stage renal disease, and when this takes place, a renal replacement therapy such as kidney dialysis is required to keep the patient alive (Rogers, 2004). When the kidneys do not function properly, they do not remove the toxins from the blood, and this can result in the person not being able to remain healthy (Rogers, 2004).

In the beginning of the disease, there are virtually no symptoms, unless the serum creatinine is studied (Rogers, 2004). However, the progression of the disease can cause an increase in blood pressure, an accumulation of potassium in the blood, an accumulation of urea, anemia, fatigue, an overload of fluid volume, cardiac arrhythmias, and vascular calcification (Rogers, 2004).

In addition to these symptoms, those that have chronic renal failure also have a high incidence of atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries, usually at a more accelerated rate, and also a high incidence of cardiovascular disease with a prognosis that is not as good as this disease in someone that does not have chronic renal failure as well (Rogers, 2004).

Usually, there is a previous renal disease or some other kind of underlying disease that is the cause of the chronic renal failure. There are some patients, however, where a cause for the problem cannot be found (Rogers, 2004). Sometimes, this cause is identified in retrospect (i.e. At a later date) but cannot be discovered when the diagnosis of chronic renal failure is first made. It is important to be aware, however, that chronic renal failure is not the same disease as acute renal failure, as acute renal failure can sometimes be corrected or even reversed (Rogers, 2004).

In order to diagnose chronic renal failure, there are several tests. Generally,… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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