Essay: Technology Trends in Health Security and Pandemics

Pages: 4 (1356 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 6  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: Security  ·  Buy This Paper

SAMPLE EXCERPT:

[. . .] A few scholars indicate healthcare issues’ securitization tends to wrongly increase a security-focused threat-addressing strategy’s appeal. This usually indicates security/military tactics which can jeopardize civil liberties, to the detriment of a more apt, multifaceted and all-encompassing strategy (Elbe 2006; Enemark, 2009). Overall, epidemics’ extensiveness and effects on international power relations and governmental capabilities mostly revolve around guesswork (Le Gloannec, Irondelle, & Cadier, 2013).

International Migration Trend

The past two decades have seen a substantial growth in the volume, though not in the percentage, of immigrants; 2010 statistics reveal 214 million individuals to be residing in a foreign nation, as against the 1960 and 1990 statistics of 75 and 155 million, respectively (UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2009). Nevertheless, a minor growth has been witnessed in immigrants as a percentage of global population: the 1990 figure was 2.9%, while that of 2010 was 3.1% (Le Gloannec, Irondelle, & Cadier, 2013).

Global immigration dynamics pose challenges to national autonomy and capability in the following couple of ways: shared identity and border control. The torrent of illegal immigrants and refugees definitely undermine national capability of controlling borders, but the argument that they pose a threat to sovereignty is an overstatement. To be more precise, immigration management has the trade-off that via inter-state collaboration in the form of policy harmonization and knowledge-sharing, nations give up autonomy to a certain extent but simultaneously improve their border-controlling capability (Ghosh, 2000). Immigration may affect the global security environment through playing a part in creating or exacerbating conditions for turmoil or intense armed conflict. History has seen such movements fuelling conflicts in a nation due to resource channeling (examples are Sri Lanka and Kosovo). One World Bank-ordered research revealed nations having major diaspora abroad displayed much greater likelihood to face repeated conflict (Collier, 2000). Moreover, organized criminals take advantage of immigration for generating profits through human smuggling, while terror networks can enjoy more easy access to target nations. Adamson’s 2006 work (pg. 195-196) cautions, with regard to terror attack potential that when attempting to tackle the above link, nations might over-react, invade civil rights, and adopt public diplomacy and other counter-productive measures. This illustrates governments’ challenge when tackling the migration-security link’s multifaceted consequences (Le Gloannec, Irondelle, & Cadier, 2013).

Take the example of Europe. Individual countries strive to make the masses believe the government wholly controls migration policies (Khader and de Wenden, 2010: 36); but the actual truth is this issue may only be dealt with via collaboration. National borders’ functions have been fortified within political imaginary, resulting in enhanced border policing and migration securitization. Rather than heralding sovereignty’s collapse, modern-day immigration has usually resulted in “re-bordering”. Immigration securitization and nations’ stubborn resolution to feign border control is eventually manifested in their representational military measures for handling migration flows (like immigrant deportation, naval patrolling, or interdiction – operations America has undertaken in Haiti or Cuba or European nations’ Mediterranean operations). At any rate, migratory flows, immigrants’ establishment in foreign lands, Diasporas, and population displacement have diverse causes, occur in diverse forms and display highly-complex consequences for security and nations (Le Gloannec, Irondelle, & Cadier, 2013).

Bibliography

Adamson, F. (2006), “Crossing Borders. International Migration and National Security”, International Security, Vol. 31, No. 1 (Summer), p. 165-199

Casey, L. A. (2013). Three Technology Trends for Homeland Security. Arc Aspicio.

Collier, P. (2000), Economic Causes of Civil Conflict and Their Implications for Policy, Washington, World Bank 15 June, http:// go.worldbank.org/HBOXCW5CZ0.

Elbe, S. (2006), “Should HIV/AIDS be Securitized? The Ethical Dilemmas of Linking HIV/AIDS and Security”, International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 50, No. 1 (March), p. 119-144.

Enemark, C. (2009), “Is Pandemic Flu a Security Threat?”, Survival, Vol. 51, No. 1 (February-March), p. 191-214

Ghosh, B., ed. (2000), Managing Migration. Time for a New International Regime?, Oxford, Oxford University Press

Khader, B. and de Wenden, C. (2010), “Les dynamiques de mouvement de personnes”, 10 Papers for Barcelona, No. 7 (May), http://www.iss.europa.eu/publications/detail/article/les-dynamiques-de-mouvement-de-personnes

Le Gloannec, A.-M., Irondelle, B., & Cadier, D. (2013). New and Evolving… [END OF PREVIEW]

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