Research Paper: Ted Bundy: All-American Serial Killer

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[. . .] 134). Law enforcement officials then compiled and printed a list of names that appeared twice (600 results, including Bundy), four times (400 results, including Bundy), and five times (25 results, excluding Bundy).

While police were sorting through this information in Washington, he was being tracked down in Utah. On August 16, 1975 at 2:30 A.M., in Granger, Utah, Sgt. Bob Hayward pulled Bundy over for suspicious activity (Bell, n.d.). During a search of Bundy's car, police uncovered handcuffs, a ski mask, ice pick, bits of rope, and torn strips of sheets. Despite being taken into custody, being charged with evading police, and being fingerprinted, he was released because they did not have any evidence to hold him (Vronsky, 2004, p.137). It was only after Utah law enforcement agencies held their weekly meeting in which they compared notes on arrests and other criminal activities, that they realized that they had had Bundy in custody but let him go. Although Bundy was initially charged with possession of burglary tools, he was charged with aggravated kidnapping on October 2, 1975 when DaRonch, the director of the play at Viewmont High School that Bundy had initially approached, and a friend of Kent picked Bundy out of a seven man line-up that they launched an investigation into his criminal activities. During a search of Bundy's apartment, police discovered a brochure advertising the play at Viewmont High School and a guide to Colorado resorts with Wildwood Inn checked off (Keppel, 2005, p.71). While awaiting trial, Bundy remained free on bail and was not incarcerated until he was found guilty beyond reasonable doubt of aggravated kidnapping and sentenced on June 30, 1976 to 15 years in prison with the possibility of parole (Bell, n.d.).

While Bundy was incarcerated in Utah, law enforcement officials began looking for evidence that would connect him to Campbell's and Smith's disappearances. In Bundy's car, detectives discovered hairs that were later examined by the FBI and found to be "characteristically alike to Campbell's and Smith's" (Bell, n.d.; Boynton, 2007, p.32). Also, impressions taken from the crowbar found in Bundy's car matched the impressions in Campbell's skull. Other evidence found included gas receipts putting him in and around places where crimes took place, credit card slips, phone bills, hair samples, and witness statements (Vronsky, 2004, p.138). On October 22, 1976, Colorado police filed charges against Bundy for his involvement in Campbell's murder. He was then extradited to Colorado where he escaped before he could stand trial.

When Bundy was arrested in Florida after the Chi Omega attacks and Kimberly Leach's disappearance, police began to compile evidence to link him to Leach's disappearance. They not only found the white van stolen by Bundy to commit the crime, but also had three witnesses identifying him as the man driving the van, and "forensic tests conducted on the van yielded fibers of material that had come from Bundy's clothes" (Bell, n.d.). Tests also revealed that the blood collected from the van's carpet was a match to Leach's blood type, and that semen and Bundy's blood type were found on her underwear. Also, Bundy's shoeprints were found in the soil next to where Leach's body was found (Bell, n.d.). Credit card receipts also place Bundy in Lake City at the time of murder and a witness linked Bundy to the knife used to kill Leach (Boynton, 2007, p.39). Bundy was charged with Leach's murder on July 31, 1978.

The most damning evidence against Bundy would be collected at the Chi Omega house. Evidence collected included blood from the four victims, latent fingerprints that later proved to be unuseful, chewing gum found in one of the victims' hair that was accidentally destroyed at the crime lab, a section of flesh from Levy's buttocks with teeth marks, and pillows, blankets, nightgowns, and panties (Boynton, 2007, p.33). Also, "[at] the crime scene, an alert police officer had place a yellow ruler next to the bite marks [on Levy's buttocks] and photographed them. This would prove to be a crucial move because actual tissue samples…were later destroyed during analysis" (Boynton, 2007, p.37). The most important evidence collected in the Chi Omega murders would prove to be the photograph of Levy's buttocks, which allowed prosecutors to use forensic dentistry to convict Bundy of Levy's and Bowman's murder.

Result of Analytical Tests

After he was arrested in Florida, Bundy refused to give imprints of his teeth, however, he was forced to do so when a search warrant ordered him to comply (Boynton, 2007, p.37). There are several difficulties that arise when performing forensic dental analysis such as "multiple bites" in the same position. These types of bites can make it difficult to identify specific bite marks. A second issue arises is the correct duplication of the biter's teeth. Dr. Michael Bowers (2011) states, "New research indicates the biomechanics of skin and biting pressure produces uncorrectable pattern distribution…[which] leads to subjective and unreliable interpretations & #8230;during comparison with suspects." Bundy's teeth were so unique, that this type of analysis could be performed.

In order to compare the impressions of Bundy's teeth to the photograph of Levy's buttocks, two transparent overlays were superimposed on the original picture. The first overlay was a hand drawn "hollow volume" type that showed Bundy's lower front teeth and the second overlay was a felt pen "drawing of the edges of Bundy's teeth" (Bowers, 2011). A close analysis of these overlays, in relation to the picture, allows a person to see the "differing values of teeth are and definition between the two methods" (Bowers, 2011). During the Chi Omega trial, Dr. Richard Souviron of Coral Gables, Florida testified and explained how the impressions were matched. He pointed out alignment, size, sharpness, and chipping (Boynton, 2007, p.37). Dr. Souviron also explained how the double bite mark on Levy's buttocks was created. Dr. Souviron explained, "After biting once, the assailant had turned sideways and bit again wit the top teeth remaining in the same position, as the lower teeth left two rings" (Boynton, 2007, p.37). During cross-examination, Dr. Souviron went on to explain "how he had conducted several experiments at the morgue with the model of Bundy's teeth in order to ensure standardization of his results" (Boynton, 2007, p.37). Furthermore, Dr. Lowell Levine, the chief consultant on forensic dentistry for the New York City Medical Examiner's Office supported Dr. Souviron's testimony and added that Levy was not moving at the time the teeth marks were inflicted (Boynton, 2007, p.37). These prosecution witnesses determined that the bite marks were unique to Bundy; like fingerprints, teeth impressions are unique to humans.

Conclusion

Bundy was found guilty on July 24, 1979 of two counts of murder, three counts of attempted first degree murder, and two counts of burglary for having broken into the Chi Omega house and into Thomas's home. Bundy was sentenced to death for the two murders. Six months later, he was forced to stand trial for Kimberly Leach's murder. On February 10, 1980, he was sentenced to death for a third time. Right before he was executed, Bundy decided to confess to his crimes, providing shocking details into what he had done, and shedding light onto disappearances that law enforcement officials did not know Bundy had been involved in (Bell, n.d.). Bundy was finally executed, after exhausting all his appeals, on January 24, 1989.

References

Bell, R. (n.d.). Ted Bundy. Crime Library: Criminal Minds and Methods. Accessed 20 April

2013, from http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/serial_killers/notorious/bundy/index_1.html

Bowers, M. (2011, Oct. 23). Ted Bundy bitemarks and Richard Milone: How DNA, bitemark research and failed cases have changed bitemark analysis. Forensic Odontology -- Bitemark Evidence. Accessed 20 April 2013, from http://bitemarks.org/2011/10/23/ted-bundy-bitemarks-and-richard-milone-how-dna-bitemark-research-and-failed-cases-have-changed-bitemark-analysis/

Boynton, G. (2007). Ted Bundy: the serial killer next door. Crimes and Trials of the Century.

Eds. Steven Chermak and Frankie Bailey. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.

Keppel, R. (2005). The Riverman: Ted Bundy and I Hunt for the Green River Killer. New York:

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Ted Bundy: All-American Serial Killer.  (2013, April 21).  Retrieved June 26, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/ted-bundy-american-serial-killer/6174613

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"Ted Bundy: All-American Serial Killer."  21 April 2013.  Web.  26 June 2019. <https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/ted-bundy-american-serial-killer/6174613>.

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"Ted Bundy: All-American Serial Killer."  Essaytown.com.  April 21, 2013.  Accessed June 26, 2019.
https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/ted-bundy-american-serial-killer/6174613.