Tenure -- Literature Review Academic Literature Review

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The department will then vote to recommend the candidate for tenure, to dismiss the candidate, or to postpone tenure. Senior hires may be made for experienced professors who have excelled in their fields and are brought in as "full Professors." Tenure can only be revoked following severe misconduct by the professor and is typically an arduous and lengthy process. A Wall Street Journal study found that 50-75 tenured professors, out of almost 300,000 lose their tenure each year based on misconduct. Tenure, however, does not protect the elimination of the faculty position, and as institutions eliminate or downsize, some tenured positions are also lost (Issues in Higher Education, 2011; Hilsenrath, 2005).Buy full Download Microsoft Word File paper
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Literature Review on Tenure -- Literature Review Academic Assignment

In an odd similarity to unionism, tenure in the 21st century has some strong critics. Just as union organization is often seen as a necessary measure to stop the uncontrolled manipulation of labor in the late 1800s and early 1900s; so too was tenure part of an ethical fix to protect academic freedom. Tenure has evolved, though, to a point in which it often depends solely on research publications and grants; very little on teaching, and encourages even more myopic research interests. The axiom, "publish or perish" then leads to many fine academics who are superior teachers falling by the wayside in favor of those who prefer research and lab work while letting Teaching's Assistant's deal with classroom issues (Finn, 1996). Tenure decisions, because they are not only so coveted, but also so crucial to an individual's career, tend to cause fierce political battles, and even violence and other pathological behaviors (Leatherman, 2000). Still others find that tenure is both ineffective and irrellevant in the modern era because academic freedom is no longer central to the notion of required tenure (Horn, n.d.). The issue has dominated much of the debate in higher education for over a decade, and the macro decisions made supported largely by concern over academic effectiveness with students, the need for colleges to have Full Professors interact with undergraduates, and to ensure that ivory-towerism is no longer a part of the academic paradigm. However, the significance for the 21st century lies with the notion that America's university system remains quite divergent; a large number of students attend 2-year Community Programs, do quite well in that environment, and require committed professors who primarily teach; however, even large universities need teachers as well as researchers. Thus, finding the balance between the competitiveness of universities and the specific geographic or intellectual climate with which one is comfortable (McPherson & Schapiro, 1999).

Works Cited

Board of Regents of State Colleges v. Roth, 408 U.S. 564 (U.S. Supreme Court June 29, 1972).

Perry v. Sindermann, 408 U.S. 593 (U.S. Supreme June 29, 1972).

Percent of Teachers with Tenure. (2008, June). Retrieved March 2011, from Department of Education Statistics: http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d08/tables/dt08_264.asp

Issues in Higher Education. (2011, January). Retrieved March 2011, from American Association of University Professors: http://www.aaup.org/AAUP/issues/

Amacher, R. (2004). Faulty Towers: Tenure and the Structure of Higher Education. Oakland, CA: Independent Institute.

Beerman, J. (2006). Administrative Law. New York: Aspen Publishers.

Chait, R. (Ed.). (2002). The Question of Tenure. Cambriedge, MA, Harvard University Press.

DeGeorge, R.T. (1997). Academic Freedom and Tenure: Ethical Issues. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefeld.

Finn, R. (1996, October). Academic Job Security Threatened as Anti-Tenure Wave Sweeps U.S. Retrieved March 2011, from The New Scientist: http://www.f1000scientist.com/article/display/17257/

Hilsenrath, J. (2005, October 24). Novel Way to Assess School Competition Stirs Academic Row. Retrieved March 2011, from The Wall Street Journal Online: http://gsppi.berkeley.edu/faculty/jrothstein/hoxby/wsj.pdf

Horn, J. (n.d.). On the Ineffectiveness and irrelevancy of Tenure. Retrieved 2011 March, from Academic Questions: http://www.horn_on_the-ineffectivness-irrelevancy-of-tenure-2[1].pdf

Leatherman, C. (2000). Alleged Death Threats, a Hunger Strike, and a Department at Risk Over a Tenure Decision. The Chronicale of Higher Education, 46(48), A12-13.

McPherson, M., & Schapiro, M. (1999). Tenure Issues in Higher Education. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 13(1), 85-98.

O'Neil, R. (2003). Academic Freedom in Retrospect and in Prospect. In P. Hollingsworth (Ed.), Unfettered Expression: Freedom in American Intellectual Life (pp. 19-30). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

School of Mathematics University of St. Andrews, Scotland. (2006, June). George Bruce Halsted. Retrieved March 2011, from St. Andrews School: http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Biographies/Halsted.html

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