Terrorist and Youtube Research Paper

Pages: 10 (3136 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 15  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Terrorism  ·  Buy This Paper

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[. . .] The impact of disruptive technologies such as internet, social media and communication application can be gauged from the fact that London was a rather safe and quite cosmopolitan area. The use of internet and its potential to facilitate instigation in the future in most developed countries even is not out of bounds.

The internet moderated terrorism

The internet moderated terrorism called the cyberterrorism is also on the rise. The U.S. Department of Defense and its allied agencies face more than 60 cyber attacks each week. The low and high level information warfare between terrorists' outfits and nation states has been operational the on trans-regional basis. Researchers have also argued for interdisciplinary strategies for dealing with internet-based terrorism. Researchers consider video-based messages of Al-Qaeda and other globally recognized terrorist's organizations having relationship with an appeal to Muslim populations throughout the world.

Yang and Ng (2007) observes that the independence and ability to publish in weblogs, wikis, social media sites and internet websites allow for propaganda dissemination. Blogging and maintaining continuous account of activities and opinion in weblogs has been frequently practiced by the terrorist organizations. The weblogs are online diaries that can update group members and visitors with the author's activities, opinions and plans. This presents a continuous challenge to the security enforcement agencies and intelligence officials to investigate such cyber activities in real time. Researchers have also supported the notion that intelligence agencies should utilize query-dependent exploration. Data crawling techniques can be used in retrieving information from terrorists group communities. Information visualization techniques can be used to detect communities of practice (CoP) that are based on terrorist organizations and agendas. Fisheye can be used at different levels of abstraction; therefore it can retrieve information regarding terrorist organizations.

3. Regulating the internet for anti-terrorism

Different countries have responded to the threat of internet terrorism. The UK authorities passed the legislation titled as Computer Misuse Act (CMA) in 1990. Legislative initiatives by the UK and the U.S. authorities have been invoked from time to time. This has resulted in much legislative provision being enforced to eliminate or mitigate the threat of terrorism emancipating from internet-based technologies. Since government also use the internet as a means to push the foreign policy agenda (in other countries) the independence of using the internet is also a requirement by the U.S. And other governments. The free and unrestricted use of internet provides valuable information to intelligence agencies but also poses a significant threat regarding internal and external security measures. The Joint Terror Center in Germany is also making judicious efforts to trace the patterns of communication and information sharing by leading terrorist organizations.

Kegley (1996) observed that First Amendment discussion, the notion of personal jurisdiction and independence to carry out activities in the internet world has led to increased misuse of these legal terminologies. The traditional publishing and communication mediums have become more expensive and easy traceable that compels terrorists to seek new avenues of information dissemination and collaboration. An important threat that needs to be mitigated in an event of internet infrastructure attacks on a country it to prepare for such an event. The national laws are seen as inadequate or ineffective in countering the terror threat. The use of internet surveillance and interception of communication is essential to help agencies assess the terror threat rather than just responding to the incidents (Crilley, 2001). Agencies are faced with the challenge of striking a balance between freedom of speech and information and the use of internet as a terror inducing tool.

Goldsmith (1997) highlighted the three general fallacies found in the literature regarding internet regulations. The author states that it is generally understood that cyberspace is a separate place and territorial governance should not regulate internet transactions and communication. The author also rejects the popularly held notion that the internet has no geographical constraints. The author argues that content providers can control their information flow in territorial space (Goldsmith, 1997, p. 1120). The author also observes because of spillover impacts of internet technology it is essential to curtail the flow of information but systematically. Another fallacy that the author rejects is that territorial governments cannot control regulate the non-territorial internet. The author also suggests that although it will be difficult to inspect each and every item crossing its internet boundary but there are ways around to regulate the flow of items. "Instead, it can achieve a great deal of regulatory control over illegal foreign imports posing costs on persons and property within its territory" (Goldsmith, 1997, p. 1124).

The author also asserts that extraterritorial communications that are locally harmful are also regulated in this format. An important way is to make legal provisions for consumers of locally harmful content. The third and the most pervasive fallacy about internet regulation is that cheap and plentiful information will transform the world. The notion that the internet may promote democracy, tolerance and respect among users is termed as fallacious as held by the author. Some researchers have suggested for bringing back the state by governing the use of internet. There is however issues and challenges in the internet regulation area as it happens to be a booming area in the legal community (Mayer-Schonberger, 2002). The most pervasive issues in internet regulation are content regulation. There is another debate about the entity and body that shall be entrusted with internet regulations of content.

4. Recommendations

Following are some key Recommendations to help mitigate the risks of terrorism based on the internet and conducted through cyberspace.

The government shall strive to initiate process for invoking new statutes to help law enforcement and intelligence agencies conducted integrated operations.

Inter-agency coordination for intelligence sharing and data synthesis shall be carried out. This may help integrate the disparate pieces of information present with each agency to help conclude actionable data.

FBI considers cyber threat to be one of the greatest for nation's security in the 21st century. All the agencies related to the department of defense (DoD) shall be required to submit a list of sophisticated capabilities of their IT departments to resist outside attempts of hacking.

The existing law enforcement agencies shall develop a cell that coordinates and integrates counterterrorism, domestic criminal investigations and counterintelligence operations.

The inter-governmental agencies shall be tasked with the development of high powered committee that comes up with a methodology to regulate the flow if information coming from critical war areas. For instance, a Somali terrorist was found chatting frequently with a group of students residing within the U.S.

The policing agencies and intelligence outfits shall use crawling methods for data retrieval.

5. Summary

The study aimed to explore the internet use independence and its role in spreading terrorism. The study hypotheses were tested and found to be correct. The pertinent literature regarding the use of internet as a moderator in facilitating terrorism activities also confirmed that numerous terrorist organizations use the medium for their objectives' achievement. Weimann (2004; 2005; 2009) observed that governments and organizations underestimate the ability of terrorist organizations and trans-regional terrorist groups' ability to spread violence. It was found that terrorist groups that use internet have set patterns of their activities on the cyberspace. Firstly, the groups emerge suddenly over the internet with their own websites and social media identifies.

They use anonymous names and membership details to register domain names. Secondly, frequent modification in format and content of these websites is observed. The terrorist organizations' websites swiftly disappear and change their online addresses. The main use of terrorist organizations using internet are to conduct psychological warfare, information gathering, training, networking, planning, coordinating, and funding the terrorism acts. The unregulated and unrestricted use of internet by these organizations has led to the usage of cyberspace by the terror outfits such as Hamas, Al-Qaeda, Aramata Cross, Irish Republic Army, Ansar ul Mujahdeen, etc. These organizations are based nationally, internationally and trans-regionally. The use of Web 2.0 technologies and social media platforms based on Web 2.0 was found most prevalent in the terrorists organizations. Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube were found to have multiple accounts of terrorist groups.

References

Amble, J.C. (2012). Combating terrorism in the new media environment.Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 35(5), 339-353.

Brinkerhoff, J.M. (2006). Digital diasporas and conflict prevention: the case of Somalinet. com. Review of International Studies, 32(1), 25-47.

Crilley, K. (2001, September). Information warfare: new battle fields Terrorists, propaganda and the Internet. In Aslib Proceedings (Vol. 53, No. 7, pp. 250-264). MCB UP Ltd.

Denning, D.E. (2009). Terror's web: How the internet is transforming terrorism.Handbook on Internet crime.

FeigenbAum, A. (2011). Security for sale! The visual rhetoric of marketing counter-terrorism technologies. The Poster, 2(1), 75-92.

Goldsmith, J. (1997). Regulation of the Internet: Three Persistent Fallacies.Chi.-Kent L. Rev., 73, 1119.

Goodman, S.E., Kirk, J.C., & Kirk, M.H. (2007). Cyberspace as a medium for terrorists. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 74(2), 193-210.

Halchin, L.E. (2004). Electronic government: Government capability and terrorist resource. Government Information Quarterly, 21(4), 406-419.

Kegley,… [END OF PREVIEW]

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