Term Paper: Therapeutic Use of Embryonic Stem

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[. . .] The international debate focuses on the definition of the conditions governing the instrumental use of pre-implantation embryo.

The main ethical issues with of concern are the derivation of life in the exploration of the stem cells research. A substantial group of Americans objecting to research on embryonic stem cells in human technology argues of the destruction that occurs with the harvested cells. The embryonic stem cell research is controversial for all who believe that the five-day-old pre-implantation human embryos should be left to live; no matter how valuable the research is to the society (Masters, Palsson & Thomson, 2007). Life is a fundamental gift, and as such, it deserves proper treatment of care and provision. To date, the stem cell scientist succeeded in producing several disease-specific stem cells that are positively applicable in addressing genetic disease fibrosis and spinal muscular atrophy. However, the therapeutic application of research into the biological development of the technique of somatic cell nuclear transfer is controversially growing the ensuing debate on human embryo implantation. The use of the somatic cell transplant is cloning of the being.

The people who are opposing the embryonic stem research have various bases. The bases are either religious or just other personal reasons that all the pre-implantations have moral standing equal to the living persons (Kiessling & Anderson, 2007). However, the opposition of the same claim that, the religions, not all have traditions grant full support for the, moral standing to early-age human embryos. For instance, according to the Jewish, Islamic, Hindu, Buddhist traditions and various Western Christian views, the moral standings observed today apply much later during the gestation period. This is a contrary opinion to the belief that once the egg fertilization takes place, the embryo is human and as such, it requires and is worthy of same moral treatment as the growing living being. The religions that do not have this view believe that the fetus must reach a certain age of viability where it is capable of living outside the womb. The fact that the society around is pluralistic requires every person to learn and appreciate tolerance of the differences in religious and personal convictions over such theoretical matters. This determines the moral standings and observations that appear first during the development. Additional critics of the embryonic stem research believe that the pre-implantation embryos do have the ability to become fully fledged beings; thus should not undergo the destruction. However, the opponents argue that it is simply false since, most of the clinical embryos have a poor quality and; therefore, they are not capable of producing a fertile pregnancy (Kiessling & Anderson, 2007). Additionally, no embryo can have a potential to become fully developed human unless they undergo implantation into a woman's uterus. Prior to this implantation into the uterus, the embryo is only existent as an abstract and a hypothetical sense.

The belief that, no end believed to be good can justify this intervention kind. The preparation of the differentiated cells used for what looks as a promising therapeutic procedure is not justification for the harm caused with human embryos. The good end of the act does not justify the wrong end; hence, the moral issue therein. The ablation of the inner cell mass of the blastocyst, which irremediably and critically damages the human embryo, ending its development, is a gravely immoral act and consequently illicit (Stewart, Kerridge & Parker, 2007). The Catholics, in their position, explicitly confirm the doctrine outlines and affirms the faith of the Christian people. The Christian religion continues to affirm and hold that, the result of human procreation must remain in existence and respected. The being deserves unconditional respect, morally due to the weight of totality and unity in the body and spirit. The human deserves treatment with respect as a person from the moment of conception and; therefore, from that moment the person has the right to recognition as a person with inviolable right of every innocent being to life.

Additionally, it is morally licit engage in the therapeutic cloning by producing and destroying the embryo to produce the ES cell. Every form of therapeutic cloning implies producing human embryos and destroying them to produce stem cells. This is morally wrong as the being has the right to life. Moreover, affects morality is the ES cells and differentiated cells obtained another issue from them (Kiessling & Anderson, 2007). These cells, no matter, which researcher supplies them remain negative according to the beliefs of those who oppose the production and manipulation of the human embryos. Cloning proves scientifically that life begins at the time of conception. The position that most philosophical Christians hold remains the basis of all the moral topics of discussion. All those who participate in ESCR and IVF procedures, recognize that there is no real distinction between pre-embryo and embryo and that conception marks the beginning of life (Hug & Hermere-n, 2011). Therefore, they argue that, as a nation, there should be an adjustment of the moral and legal treatment of the status of the embryo as people and not object or property from the conception point.

The therapeutic cloning, in which the adult undergoes a cloning procedure that results in duplication of their cells in order to stave off disease or illness or effect of an injury. The procedure starts with the cloning of the somatic cell for transfer. In the therapeutic cloning, the embryos live for up to fourteen days, after which the trophoblasts are ready. They are then harvested and the highly prized stem cells donated for treatment purposes. Therefore, the procedure for therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning begin the same; only the intended outcome is different. Additionally, if the stem cells get implantation, they can have a full embryo; however, temporarily. The proponents of the research are; however focusing on gaining ground by passing the legislation in Congress to support their funding. Additionally, the strategic research polls indicate that, most American population does not approve the use of public funds to destroy the human embryo in the medical research. The justification of the embryos left in IVF clinics; which are numerous in the United States alone, being discarded away reflects the chilling absence of moral conscience (Ostnor, 2008). The issue of developing stem cells for therapeutic use is comparable to the subject of deriving organs from dying patients and prisoners on death row before they die; to increase the chances of another being to live. The contemporary moral issue often follows the flow of money. The stem cell research and cloning are simply transforming the majesty and mystery of life into a mere malleable and marketable commodity. This is great a business and the pioneers and biotech companies who master the secret to harness power of life through cloning and embryonic stem cell research. Therefore, it is clear that the cloning research is for personal gain and development of these masters of biology.

Lastly, there is the aspect of disadvantages associated with embryonic stem cell research (ESCR). The scientific research findings do not support the public opinions. The first complication is that, the use of the human embryonic stem cells requires lifelong reliance with on drugs that prevent the rejection of the cloned cell by the tissues. This is costly and affects the life and health of the individual as these drugs have other associated side effects on the health of the person. Therefore, as such, the moral impact of the action affects the lifelong health of the individual (Stewart, Kerridge & Parker, 2007). Secondly, the therapeutic injection of the embryonic stems cells can result in a consequent production of tumors. The rapid growth nature of the associated cells in the body can overgrow, leading to tumor growth in the body of the person. This is injurious and could result to the death of the patient as the tumors can kill. When a person dies due to such a tumor, this is an ethical and moral issue in the society. Therefore, it is clear that the embryonic stem cell implant has more moral impacts and ethical effects that it is benefitting the people. Another disadvantage is as the revelation of a report in March 8, 2001, in The New England Journal of Medicine indicating the tragic side effects from an experiment that involved the insertion of fatal brain cells into the brain of Parkinson's disease patient (Sullivan, Cowan & Eggan, 2007). The results of the commission involved, uncontrollable movements: writhing, twisting, head jerking and constant chewing. This means that the person lost total control of their being and as such got permanent deformation of self. These are the impacts the clone could have on the being if the fatal cell gets implantation into a being. This is ethically wrong and morally unacceptable as the duty of doctors is to save lives and not impair the patients further. Therefore, the act of cloning and transplanting cells into the body of healthy or slightly deformed being could have… [END OF PREVIEW]

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