Essay: Tissue Aging and the Body System

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Tissue Maturation: Body System Effects

On the cellular level, the body groups similar organisms to create tissues. Such cellular tissues do not perform in isolation, but collectively, they perform a specialized function, building a larger living organism called the human body. The human body contains four types of tissues: muscular, epithelial, nervous, and connective. Accordingly, at least two different types of tissues form various organs to serve a specific purpose in the human body, such as the liver, kidneys, heart, and skin. These organs create systems that combines two or more different organs that work together to provide a common function in which ten major organ systems exist in the human body: Skeletal System, Muscular System, Circulatory System, Nervous System, Respiratory System, Digestive System, Excretory System, Endocrine System, Reproductive System, and Lymphatic/Immune System. Interestingly, the skin is the largest organ in the human body, which is comprised of all four types of tissues. Muscle tissue that is responsible for providing support and certain sensations when one is cold or frightened. Hence, the muscle tissues are connected throughout the body that is profoundly affected by the aging process. As the life cycle matures, the human body experiences changes at the cellular level, rendering a deterioration of several molecular systems. Insomuch, such muscular cellular changes have a direct correlation to several disorders occurring in two systems experienced by the geriatric population: Muscular and Skeletal.

Muscle Tissues

With numerous microfilaments, the muscle tissues contain contractile proteins. The muscular system has three main functions: enabling movement, generating heat, and providing postural stability for the body. When a disease strikes the muscular system, its effects can be devastating not only to the muscles themselves, but also to the body's entire ability to function. Muscular system diseases are often very painful and result in physical impairments, such as an inability to walk. There are three major types of muscle tissue (Bailey, 2011): Cardiac, Skeletal, and Visceral (Exhibit A).

Muscle Tissue: Cardiac Muscular System

Primarily, the muscular system provides movement, whereby the muscles work in pairs to move limbs and provide the organism with mobility. Muscles also control the movement of materials through some organs, such as the stomach and intestine, and the heart and circulatory system (Carpi, 1999). Interestingly, each adult has a certain number of muscle cells that enlarge due to certain activities, such as exercise; however, the overall number of cells does not increase. When the muscle controls the heart, it refers to the cardiac muscular system. Specifically, the cardiac muscle (myocardium) is only muscle found in the heart in which the main function is its endurance and consistency. Seemingly, as the body ages, the functionality becomes restricted as the reserve capacity diminishes. Physiological changes occur as the chronological age increases. For example, the heart pumps approximately five liters of blood per minute, which can increase during physical activity. Therefore, the reserve capacity of the heart is tremendous given its capability to pump more blood on demand, plus it allows an individual to meet the needs required by physical work and play and it provides a margin of safety that allows one to survive the effects of cardiovascular diseases.

With age, the cardiovascular reserve capacity decreases. A reduction in the maximum aerobic capacity is accompanied by a reduction in the maximum heart rate. The left ventricular dilates more in older than in younger individuals; hence, the cardiovascular tissues declines with aging. Changes in cardiac structure leading to a moderate heart wall thickening, and changes in vascular properties, such as wall thickening and increased stiffness, attribute to the reduction in the left ventricular reserve in older individuals. As a result, the thick layer that surrounds and contracts the heart (myocardium) deteriorates with age, thus contributing to various types of heart diseases. The coronary arteries provide an extensive network to supply blood to the myocardium, which requires about 70% of the blood's oxygen. With increasing age, fibrous and fatty tissue tends to infiltrate the myocardium, reducing its effectiveness.

Muscle Tissue: Musculo-Skeletal System

Mainly, the skeletal system has thee functions: to provide support for the body, to protect delicate internal organs and to provide attachment sites for the organs. Early in life, striated muscles fibers grow, which… [END OF PREVIEW]

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