Term Paper: Tourism Attraction Ethics Extensive International

Pages: 10 (2900 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 0  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Recreation  ·  Buy This Paper

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[. . .] Some students seem to be under severe depression, being thrown into the entirely new surroundings, irrespective of the absence of language and custom barriers. There also exists a conflict between the privacy issues and the requirement of the institution to become aware of the mental and physical condition of the students.

The students are required to be oriented to become aware of the health and safety risks of excess drinking abroad, accidents in unfamiliar settings, the punishments for illicit drugs, restrictions on women and the political situation of the environment to which they are entering. Moreover, the institutions have moral responsibility of safeguarding the students and faculties of the imminent health and security risks. Such aspects broadly conclude that there prevails uncommon but enormous threat to the public health, security and accessibility from the huge growth and multiple facets of travel and tourism. Besides, deregulation, privatization, cutthroat competition for tourists and a sharp enhancement in the inclination and ability to travel have become sources of ethical concerns in many respects. (Ethics Challenges: Health, Safety and Accessibility in International Travel and Tourism)

The tourism and recreation appears to have both advantageous and detrimental impact on the ocean ecosystem. The beneficial impact can be emphasized in terms conservation of natural resources while the community acknowledges the economic benefits from tourism and recreation; the progressive acknowledgement of the significance of the quality environments by government and public and the follow up constitution of managed and protected areas and enhanced environmental awareness that individuals find through meaningful interaction with nature. The adverse impact on the ocean ecosystem may include disturbances to uplands, near shore and ocean environments, habitat degradations from constructions of facilities, runoff from land clearing activities, enhanced reverie and near shore turbidity; accidental or intentional releases of oils, fuels and other effluents; irresponsible disposal of trash and debris, and beach erosion out of development of resorts that restricts sand flow to and along the coast. (Tourism and Recreation)

Enhanced ocean and coastal tourism and recreational activities have also become the source of a number of other related problems. The increasing number of tourist inflow into a tourist site abnormally exceeding its capacity gives rise to increasing demand for new parks, facilities and shoreline access. It requires additional educational and decent programs to educate an increasing number of tourists on the ways to minimize their influence on the marine environment. Public water safety and training programs are required to go side by side with the growing trends of water-related activities. There also occur growing conflicts between various users and wildlife. The ethical consideration in this regard entails greater or new management and enforcement activities to cater to such enhanced demands. With excess carrying capacity of a destination there appears degradation in tourism and recreation experience and this requires management of unacceptable levels of resource degradation, traffic congestion, parking and public transportation problems, deteriorating facilities, noise, trash and debris, safety concerns and user conflicts.

Such damage to recreational resources are considered to be the outcome of irresponsible behavior of recreational users themselves and involves the ethical considerations of limiting the use of sensitive sites, educating the public on the ways to avoid damaging marine resources and extending highly visible enforcement. The growing conflict between humans and marine species has attracted ethical considerations. The watching of abundant living marine resources has been a center of attraction to the tourism. The wild life such as sea lions, whales and shore birds are much fascinating to observe. The growing fascinations in this respect sometimes are found to be harmful for the existence of such species and also to the tourists and needs adequate management giving due importance to ethical considerations. (Tourism and Recreation)

To illustrate, breeding colony of elephant seals has been instituted in the coves of south of Piedras Blancas in northern San Luis Obispo County in California. This has increased the population of elephant seal population tremendously. The colony attracted a never before enhancement in the number of visitors, generating several hazards, increasing traffic, illegal parking, trespassing of tourists crossing over barbed wire and private property to access the colony. Moreover, there also exists conflict between recreational users and increasing safety concerns. The scope of ocean and coastal recreational activities has been increasingly diverse. It is seen that many forms of recreation if not managed properly can generate conflicts between users. There exists a conflict between noisy and quiet or comparatively safe and higher risk forms of recreation. To illustrate, a combination of bird watching and personal watercraft use give rise to such user conflicts. The use of personal watercraft those are ridden similar to a motorcycle and being run by powerful jets are capacitated to reach enormous speeds exceeding about 30 miles per hour.

The statistics of California Boating Accident Report for 1995 reveals that personal watercraft constitutes more than 36% of all reported accidents and more than 46% of all reported injuries. Such accident rate is seen to be quite disproportionate taking into consideration only the 13% of all registered vessels in California. The commercial practice of shark chumming is taken to be the one of the most unethical incidents in the field of tourist attraction. The practice involves throwing of fish or animal parts into the ocean to allure Great White Sharks off Ano Nuevo Island established within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, California. Such activities attract sharks so that tourists can watch them from cages suspended underneath a boat. This resulted in significant oppositions from other users like scuba divers, surfers and operators of commercial fishing vessels. Maintenance and improvement of ocean ecosystem is particular significance for those who desire to swim, surf, sail or fish in clean and productive ocean or coastal waters. (Tourism and Recreation)

The ethical responsibility of the developers of tourism evolves the concept of ecotourism, which originated in the year1965 with the promotion of ecological tourism by N.D. Hetzer, with four standards of minimum levels of environmental impact, minimum levels of impact on and maximum amount of respect for host cultures, maximum amount of economic advantages to the grassroots of host country and maximum amount of recreational satisfaction to the participating tourists. Presently, the concept is recognized in terms of "adventure tourism, nature-oriented or green tourism, responsible or ethical tourism, and socio-ecological tourism." (Tourism and Recreation)

Ecotourism is normally regarded as an alternative approach in contradiction to mass tourism and thought of as an alternative form of development wherein problems are solved using a bottom up approach as opposed to the traditional top down approach. This emphasizes on the autonomy of the local community to make decisions about their livelihood and environment. It has been increasingly felt at all levels of government, civil societies, local and indigenous communities to acknowledge the goal of economic growth with tourism along with according significant priorities to the concept of ecotourism. (The Ethics and Attitudes towards Ecotourism in the Philippines)

Educational and research activities have undertaken extensively since long in Evo recreational areas located in the Southern part of Finland. The Evo Recreational Area is a center for tourist attraction with its beautiful and diverse natural resources and entails plenty of fascinating opportunities for tourist and leisure activities inclusive of trekking, hunting, swimming, boating, spoon and fly fishing. The concept of ecotourism and social responsible tourism strikes a balance between the rights and responsibilities of tourists. The tourists have the liberty to ski and cycle in the natural environment without bringing damage to it. The tourists are forbidden from "disturbing or damaging birds' nests or nesting, disturb reindeer, litter the nature, fish or hunt without proper licenses." (Sustainable Tourism Development in Evo, Finland)

Tourism is considered to be the product of social and cultural natural environment within which it occurs and its success is dependent upon the environments within which it operates. However, the tourism and the travel industry are necessarily treated as a short-term encroachment of the other people's environments whether it is a coastline, a city or a mountain range or a rainforest. (National responsible Tourism Development Guidelines for South Africa) Taking into consideration an evaluation of the problems, constraints and opportunities confronting the South African tourism industry, the concept of responsible tourism has been introduced as a proactive approach by the tourism industry with a view to developing, marketing and managing tourism industry [END OF PREVIEW]

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